Cell-permeable inducer of definitive endoderm formation in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (EC50
= 223 nM for induction of Sox17 expression in ESCs). Reported to activate TGF-β
signaling and downstream Smad2 phosphorylation; upregulates Nodal
expression. Promotes pancreatic progenitor cell formation in vitro
, and gut tube formation in vivo
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Small molecules efficiently direct endodermal differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells.
Borowiak M, Maehr R, Chen S et al.
Cell Stem Cell.
Using small molecules to great effect in stem cell differentiation.
Cell Stem Cell, 2009;4:373
Stimulation of activin A/Nodal signaling is insufficient to induce definitive endoderm formation of cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells.
Filby et al.
Stem Cell Res.Ther., 2011;2:16