Chemical Name: L-(+)-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid
Biological ActivityL-AP4 is a selective group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist that acts at mGlu4, mGlu8, mGlu6 and mGlu7 receptors (EC50 values = 0.1-0.13 μM, 0.29 μM, 1.0-2.4 μM and 249-337 μM, respectively). L-AP4 is a synaptic depressant and inhibits excitatory post-synaptic currents. L-AP4 is also an agonist at the quisqualate-sensitized AP6 site in hippocampus.
DL Mixture and D-isomer also available.
The technical data provided above is for guidance only.
For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
The effect of a series of ω-phosphonic-α-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and amino acid induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations.
Evans et al.
Antagonism of the synaptic depressant actions of L-AP4 in the lateral perforant path by MAP4.
Bushell et al.
Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain functions.
The agonist selectivity of a class III metabotropic glutamate receptor, human mGluR4a, is determined by the N-terminal extracellular domain.
Tones et al.
Increased potency and selectivity for group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists binding at dual sites.
Selvam et al.
Citations for L-AP4
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for L-AP4 include:
56 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Inhibition, but not excitation, recovers from partial cone loss with greater spatiotemporal integration, synapse density, and frequency.
Authors: Lee Et al.
Cell Rep. 2022;38:110317
Voltage-gated potassium channels ensure action potential shape fidelity in distal axons.
Authors: Sabater Et al.
J Neurosci 2021;41:5372
Oxytocin shapes spontaneous activity patterns in the developing visual cortex by activating somatostatin interneurons.
Authors: Maldonado Et al.
Curr Biol 2021;31:322
Essential Roles of Tbr1 in the Formation and Maintenance of the Orientation-Selective J-RGCs and a Group of OFF-Sustained RGCs in Mouse.
Authors: Kiyama Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;27:900
Neural Mechanisms Mediating Motion Sensitivity in Parasol Ganglion Cells of the Primate Retina.
Authors: Manookin Et al.
A group I metabotropic glutamate receptor controls synaptic gain between rods and rod bipolar cells in the mouse retina.
Authors: Hellmer Et al.
Physiol Rep 2018;6:e13885
The Development of Mid-Wavelength Photoresponsivity in the Mouse Retina.
Authors: Bonezzi Et al.
Curr Eye Res 2018;43:666
A New Promoter Allows Optogenetic Vision Restoration with Enhanced Sensitivity in Macaque Retina.
Authors: Chaffiol Et al.
Mol Ther 2017;25:2546
HTS-compatible FRET-based conformational sensors clarify membrane receptor activation.
Nat Chem Biol 2017;13(4):372
M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
Authors: Prigge Et al.
The Journal of Neuroscience 2016;6:7184
Effects of the Concomitant Activation of ON and OFF Retinal Ganglion Cells on the Visual Thalamus: Evidence for an Enhanced Recruitment of GABAergic Cells.
Authors: Montesano Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2015;9:77
Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
Authors: Spampinato Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;8:462
Voriconazole, an antifungal triazol that causes visual side effects, is an inhibitor of TRPM1 and TRPM3 channels.
Authors: Xiong Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56:1367
The Synaptic and Morphological Basis of Orientation Selectivity in a Polyaxonal Amacrine Cell of the Rabbit Retina.
Authors: Murphy-Baum and Taylor
J Neurosci 2015;35:13336
Targeting channelrhodopsin-2 to ON-bipolar cells with vitreally administered AAV Restores ON and OFF visual responses in blind mice.
Authors: Macé Et al.
Mol Ther 2015;23:7
Constitutive activity of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7.
BMC Neurosci 2015;16:17
An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina.
Authors: Jacoby Et al.
Cell Rep 2015;13:2663
The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
Authors: Reifler Et al.
Exp Eye Res 2015;130:17
Examination of VLC-PUFA-deficient photoreceptor terminals.
Authors: Bennett Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:4063
Three distinct blue-green color pathways in a mammalian retina.
Authors: Mills Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:1760
Possible roles of glutamate transporter EAAT5 in mouse cone depolarizing bipolar cell light responses.
Authors: Tse Et al.
Vision Res 2014;103:63
Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses.
Authors: Tse Et al.
Vision Res 2014;103:49
PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:2973
Impaired D-serine-mediated cotransmission mediates cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy.
Authors: Klatte Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:13066
Cell type-specific regulation of inhibition via cannabinoid type 1 receptors in rat neocortex.
Authors: De-May and Ali
J Neurophysiol 2013;109:216
Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e42647
DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
Authors: Hook Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2012;35:507
The mode of retinal presynaptic inhibition switches with light intensity.
Authors: Ichinose and Lukasiewicz
J Neurosci 2012;32:4360
Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
Sci Rep 2012;2:285
Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 co-localize and interact on nociceptors.
Authors: Govea Et al.
Antiparkinsonian potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in the rodent substantia nigra pars reticulata.
Authors: Broadstock Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2012;165:1034
A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision.
Authors: Sher and DeVries
Nat Neurosci 2012;15:952
Depolarizing bipolar cell dysfunction due to a Trpm1 point mutation.
Authors: Peachey Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2012;108:2442
Characterization of a truncated metabotropic glutamate receptor in a primitive metazoan, the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.
Authors: Taman and Ribeiro
PLoS One 2011;6:e27119
Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
J Comp Neurol 2011;519:1492
A role for nyctalopin, a small leucine-rich repeat protein, in localizing the TRP melastatin 1 channel to retinal depolarizing bipolar cell dendrites.
Authors: Pearring Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:10060
RGS7 and -11 complexes accelerate the ON-bipolar cell light response.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:1121
Distinct retinal deficits in a zebrafish pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant.
Authors: Maurer Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:11962
Sustained glutamate receptor activation down-regulates GABAB receptors by shifting the balance from recycling to lysosomal degradation.
Authors: Maier Et al.
J Biol Chem 2010;285:35606
Retrograde intraflagellar transport by cytoplasmic dynein-2 is required for outer segment extension in vertebrate photoreceptors but not arrestin translocation.
Authors: Krock Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:5463
Light-induced fos expression in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in melanopsin knockout (opn4) mice.
Authors: Pickard Et al.
PLoS One 2009;4:e4984
GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments.
Authors: Romo-Parra Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2008;99:1523
Corequirement of PICK1 binding and PKC phosphorylation for stable surface expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7.
Authors: Suh Et al.
Localization of HCN1 channels to presynaptic compartments: novel plasticity that may contribute to hippocampal maturation.
Authors: Bender Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:4697
Effects of ethanol on photoreceptors and visual function in developing zebrafish.
Authors: Matsui Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006;47:4589
Biphenyl-indanone A, a positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, has antipsychotic- and anxiolytic-like effects in mice.
Authors: Galici Et al.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318:173
Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates rotenone toxicity on DArgic neurons through a microtubule-dependent mechanism.
Authors: Jiang Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:4318
Activation of kainate receptors sensitizes oligodendrocytes to complement attack.
Authors: Alberdi Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:3220
Umami responses in mouse taste cells indicate more than one receptor.
Authors: Maruyama Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:2227
Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist.
Authors: El-Kouhen Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2006;149:761
Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity.
J Neurosci 2005;25:5502
Melanopsin-dependent photoreception provides earliest light detection in the mammalian retina.
Authors: Sekaran Et al.
Curr Biol 2005;15:1099
Positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (hmGluR4) by SIB-1893 and MPEP.
Authors: Mathiesen Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2003;138:1026
Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Authors: Fujino and Oertel
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:265
Metabotropic mGlu5 receptors regulate adenosine A2A receptor signaling.
Authors: Nishi Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:1322
Neutrophil-derived glutamate regulates vascular endothelial barrier function.
Authors: Collard Et al.
J Biol Chem 2002;277:14801
No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you mayView all Small Molecule FAQs
VersaClone cDNA Plasmids
Reviews for L-AP4
There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review L-AP4 and earn rewards!
Have you used L-AP4?
Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.
$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image
$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image