Chemical Name: L-(+)-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid
Biological ActivityL-AP4 is a selective group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist that acts at mGlu4, mGlu8, mGlu6 and mGlu7 receptors (EC50 values = 0.1-0.13 μM, 0.29 μM, 1.0-2.4 μM and 249-337 μM, respectively). L-AP4 is a synaptic depressant and inhibits excitatory post-synaptic currents. L-AP4 is also an agonist at the quisqualate-sensitized AP6 site in hippocampus.
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The effect of a series of ω-phosphonic-α-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and amino acid induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations.
Evans et al.
Antagonism of the synaptic depressant actions of L-AP4 in the lateral perforant path by MAP4.
Bushell et al.
Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain functions.
The agonist selectivity of a class III metabotropic glutamate receptor, human mGluR4a, is determined by the N-terminal extracellular domain.
Tones et al.
Increased potency and selectivity for group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists binding at dual sites.
Selvam et al.
Citations for L-AP4
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for L-AP4 include:
56 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Inhibition, but not excitation, recovers from partial cone loss with greater spatiotemporal integration, synapse density, and frequency.
Authors: Lee Et al.
Cell Rep. 2022;38:110317
Voltage-gated potassium channels ensure action potential shape fidelity in distal axons.
Authors: Sabater Et al.
J Neurosci 2021;41:5372
Oxytocin shapes spontaneous activity patterns in the developing visual cortex by activating somatostatin interneurons.
Authors: Maldonado Et al.
Curr Biol 2021;31:322
Essential Roles of Tbr1 in the Formation and Maintenance of the Orientation-Selective J-RGCs and a Group of OFF-Sustained RGCs in Mouse.
Authors: Kiyama Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;27:900
Neural Mechanisms Mediating Motion Sensitivity in Parasol Ganglion Cells of the Primate Retina.
Authors: Manookin Et al.
A group I metabotropic glutamate receptor controls synaptic gain between rods and rod bipolar cells in the mouse retina.
Authors: Hellmer Et al.
Physiol Rep 2018;6:e13885
The Development of Mid-Wavelength Photoresponsivity in the Mouse Retina.
Authors: Bonezzi Et al.
Curr Eye Res 2018;43:666
A New Promoter Allows Optogenetic Vision Restoration with Enhanced Sensitivity in Macaque Retina.
Authors: Chaffiol Et al.
Mol Ther 2017;25:2546
HTS-compatible FRET-based conformational sensors clarify membrane receptor activation.
Nat Chem Biol 2017;13(4):372
M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
Authors: Prigge Et al.
The Journal of Neuroscience 2016;6:7184
Effects of the Concomitant Activation of ON and OFF Retinal Ganglion Cells on the Visual Thalamus: Evidence for an Enhanced Recruitment of GABAergic Cells.
Authors: Montesano Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2015;9:77
Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
Authors: Spampinato Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;8:462
Voriconazole, an antifungal triazol that causes visual side effects, is an inhibitor of TRPM1 and TRPM3 channels.
Authors: Xiong Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56:1367
The Synaptic and Morphological Basis of Orientation Selectivity in a Polyaxonal Amacrine Cell of the Rabbit Retina.
Authors: Murphy-Baum and Taylor
J Neurosci 2015;35:13336
Targeting channelrhodopsin-2 to ON-bipolar cells with vitreally administered AAV Restores ON and OFF visual responses in blind mice.
Authors: Macé Et al.
Mol Ther 2015;23:7
Constitutive activity of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7.
BMC Neurosci 2015;16:17
An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina.
Authors: Jacoby Et al.
Cell Rep 2015;13:2663
The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
Authors: Reifler Et al.
Exp Eye Res 2015;130:17
Examination of VLC-PUFA-deficient photoreceptor terminals.
Authors: Bennett Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:4063
Three distinct blue-green color pathways in a mammalian retina.
Authors: Mills Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:1760
Possible roles of glutamate transporter EAAT5 in mouse cone depolarizing bipolar cell light responses.
Authors: Tse Et al.
Vision Res 2014;103:63
Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses.
Authors: Tse Et al.
Vision Res 2014;103:49
PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:2973
Impaired D-serine-mediated cotransmission mediates cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy.
Authors: Klatte Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:13066
Cell type-specific regulation of inhibition via cannabinoid type 1 receptors in rat neocortex.
Authors: De-May and Ali
J Neurophysiol 2013;109:216
Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e42647
DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
Authors: Hook Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2012;35:507
The mode of retinal presynaptic inhibition switches with light intensity.
Authors: Ichinose and Lukasiewicz
J Neurosci 2012;32:4360
Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
Sci Rep 2012;2:285
Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 co-localize and interact on nociceptors.
Authors: Govea Et al.
Antiparkinsonian potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in the rodent substantia nigra pars reticulata.
Authors: Broadstock Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2012;165:1034
A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision.
Authors: Sher and DeVries
Nat Neurosci 2012;15:952
Depolarizing bipolar cell dysfunction due to a Trpm1 point mutation.
Authors: Peachey Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2012;108:2442
Characterization of a truncated metabotropic glutamate receptor in a primitive metazoan, the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.
Authors: Taman and Ribeiro
PLoS One 2011;6:e27119
Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
J Comp Neurol 2011;519:1492
A role for nyctalopin, a small leucine-rich repeat protein, in localizing the TRP melastatin 1 channel to retinal depolarizing bipolar cell dendrites.
Authors: Pearring Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:10060
RGS7 and -11 complexes accelerate the ON-bipolar cell light response.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:1121
Distinct retinal deficits in a zebrafish pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant.
Authors: Maurer Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:11962
Sustained glutamate receptor activation down-regulates GABAB receptors by shifting the balance from recycling to lysosomal degradation.
Authors: Maier Et al.
J Biol Chem 2010;285:35606
Retrograde intraflagellar transport by cytoplasmic dynein-2 is required for outer segment extension in vertebrate photoreceptors but not arrestin translocation.
Authors: Krock Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:5463
Light-induced fos expression in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in melanopsin knockout (opn4) mice.
Authors: Pickard Et al.
PLoS One 2009;4:e4984
GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments.
Authors: Romo-Parra Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2008;99:1523
Corequirement of PICK1 binding and PKC phosphorylation for stable surface expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7.
Authors: Suh Et al.
Localization of HCN1 channels to presynaptic compartments: novel plasticity that may contribute to hippocampal maturation.
Authors: Bender Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:4697
Effects of ethanol on photoreceptors and visual function in developing zebrafish.
Authors: Matsui Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006;47:4589
Biphenyl-indanone A, a positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, has antipsychotic- and anxiolytic-like effects in mice.
Authors: Galici Et al.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318:173
Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates rotenone toxicity on DArgic neurons through a microtubule-dependent mechanism.
Authors: Jiang Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:4318
Activation of kainate receptors sensitizes oligodendrocytes to complement attack.
Authors: Alberdi Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:3220
Umami responses in mouse taste cells indicate more than one receptor.
Authors: Maruyama Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:2227
Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist.
Authors: El-Kouhen Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2006;149:761
Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity.
J Neurosci 2005;25:5502
Melanopsin-dependent photoreception provides earliest light detection in the mammalian retina.
Authors: Sekaran Et al.
Curr Biol 2005;15:1099
Positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (hmGluR4) by SIB-1893 and MPEP.
Authors: Mathiesen Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2003;138:1026
Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Authors: Fujino and Oertel
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:265
Metabotropic mGlu5 receptors regulate adenosine A2A receptor signaling.
Authors: Nishi Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:1322
Neutrophil-derived glutamate regulates vascular endothelial barrier function.
Authors: Collard Et al.
J Biol Chem 2002;277:14801
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