Chemical Name: (S)-α-Amino-2,3-dihydro-4-methoxy-7-nitro-δ-oxo-1H-indole-1-pentanoic acid
Biological ActivityMNI-caged glutamate that rapidly and efficiently releases glutamate (Cat. No. 0218) when photolysed (300 - 380 nm excitation). Water-soluble, highly resistant to hydrolysis, stable at neutral pH, and pharmacologically inactive at neuronal glutamate receptors (up to mM concentrations). 2.5-fold more efficient at releasing L-glutamate than NI-caged L-glutamate.
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Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups.
Palma-Cerda et al.
Photochemical and pharmacological evaluation of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-amino acids as novel, fast caged neurotransmitters.
Canepari et al.
Comparative analysis of inhibitory effects of caged ligands for the NMDA receptor.
Maier et al.
Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Matsuzaki et al.
Effects of aromatic substitutions on the photocleavage of 1-acyl-7-nitroindolines.
Papageorgiou and Corrie
Citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate include:
45 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
The CaMKII/NMDA receptor complex controls hippocampal synaptic transmission by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms.
Nat Commun 2018;9:2069
A Presynaptic Glutamate Receptor Subunit Confers Robustness to Neurotransmission and Homeostatic Potentiation.
Authors: Kiragasi Et al.
Cell Rep 2017;19:2694
Stereotyped initiation of retinal waves by bipolar cells via presynaptic NMDA autoreceptors.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors.
Authors: Berlin Et al.
17β-Estradiol Acutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females.
J Neurosci 2016;36:2677
The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels.
Authors: Yang Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;9:469
Highly differentiated cellular and circuit properties of infralimbic pyramidal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray and amygdala.
Authors: Ferreira Et al.
Nat Commun 2015;9:161
Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch.
Authors: Laprell Et al.
PLoS One 2015;6:8076
Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.
Authors: Harnett Et al.
PLoS One 2015;35:1024
Melanoma brain colonization involves the emergence of a brain-adaptive phenotype.
Authors: Nygaard Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;1:82
The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation.
Authors: Erlandson Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;10:e0132008
Fast Decay of CaMKII FRET Sensor Signal in Spines after LTP Induction Is Not Due to Its Dephosphorylation.
Authors: Otmakhov Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;10:e0130457
Spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition within a stimulus selection network in the avian midbrain.
Authors: Goddard Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e85865
Input integration around the dendritic branches in hippocampal dentate granule cells.
Authors: Kamijo Et al.
Cogn Neurodyn 2014;8:267
Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus.
Authors: Ikrar Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2014;7:204
Plasticity of binocularity and visual acuity are differentially limited by nogo receptor.
Authors: Stephany Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:11631
Directional summation in non-direction selective retinal ganglion cells.
Authors: Abbas Et al.
PLoS Comput Biol 2013;9:e1002969
Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters.
Authors: Go Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2013;7:231
Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse.
Authors: Apostolides and Trussell
J Neurosci 2013;33:4768
Molecular layer perforant path-associated cells contribute to feed-forward inhibition in the adult dentate gyrus.
Authors: Li Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:9106
Intrinsic connections in the anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Authors: Turesson Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2013;109:2438
Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration alters NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry in nucleus accumbens dendritic spines.
Authors: Ferrario Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e40898
Mechanism of inhibition of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 by the conformationally constrained glutamate analogue (+)-HIP-B.
Authors: Callender Et al.
Alteration of synaptic network dynamics by the intellectual disability protein PAK3.
Authors: Dubos Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:519
Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:1183
Neural circuit mechanisms for pattern detection and feature combination in olfactory cortex.
Authors: Davison and Ehlers
Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development.
Authors: Doretto Et al.
PLoS One 2011;6:e19849
Water and urea permeation pathways of the human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1.
Authors: Vandenberg Et al.
Biochem J 2011;439:333
NMDA receptor signaling in oligodendrocyte progenitors is not required for oligodendrogenesis and myelination.
Authors: Biase Et al.
Hetero-oligomerization of neuronal glutamate transporters.
Authors: Nothmann Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;286:3935
Dysregulation of presynaptic calcium and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome.
Authors: Earls Et al.
J Biol Chem 2010;30:15843
Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue Thr101.
Authors: Tao Et al.
J Biol Chem 2010;285:17725
Discovery of a Novel Chemical Class of mGlu(5) Allosteric Ligands with Distinct Modes of Pharmacology.
Authors: Hammond Et al.
ACS Chem Neurosci 2010;1:702
High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
Authors: Xu Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2010;103:2301
SLM Microscopy: Scanless Two-Photon Imaging and Photostimulation with Spatial Light Modulators.
Authors: Nikolenko Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2009;2:5
Robust short-latency perisomatic inhibition onto neocortical pyramidal cells detected by laser-scanning photostimulation.
Authors: Brill and Huguenard
J Neurosci 2009;29:7413
Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in an RNA interference model of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 deficiency.
Authors: Wood Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;29:12440
Differential distribution of endoplasmic reticulum controls metabotropic signaling and plasticity at hippocampal synapses.
Authors: Holbro Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106:15055
Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
Authors: Brill and Huguenard
J Reprod Dev 2008;28:13918
Natural oligomers of the Alzheimer amyloid-beta protein induce reversible synapse loss by modulating an NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent signaling pathway.
Authors: Shankar Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:2866
Neutralization of the aspartic acid residue Asp-367, but not Asp-454, inhibits binding of Na+ to the glutamate-free form and cycling of the glutamate transporter EAAC1.
Authors: Tao Et al.
J Biol Chem 2006;281:10263
Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist.
Authors: El-Kouhen Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2006;149:761
Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials.
Authors: Araya Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103:18799
The spine neck filters membrane potentials.
Authors: Araya Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;103:17961
Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons.
Authors: Huang Et al.
J Neurosci 2004;24:4551
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Reviews for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
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We buy this product in bulk for use in all of our uncaging experiments. High frequency uncaging next to dendritic spine head induces reliable spine growth, indicative of synapse strengthening.
We resuspend in ACSF and found that we can freeze and reuse the solution. However, when suspended in HBSS it is no longer effective after freezing.