|Detection of VCAM‑1/CD106 in bEnd.3 Mouse Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. bEnd.3 mouse endothelioma cell line was stained with Rat Anti-Mouse VCAM‑1/CD106 Alexa Fluor® 700‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB6432N, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC006N, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
VCAM-1 (CD106), an 85-95 kDa member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by activated endothelial cells and multiple cell types, including osteoblasts, B cells plus plasma cells, select fibroblasts, Kupffer cells, sensory and autonomic neurons, visceral smooth muscle, simple squamous type I alveolar epithelium, and CD133+ CD24+ renal stem cells. Its expression is typically induced by IL-1 beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. VCAM-1 binds to leukocyte integrins VLA-4, LPAM-1 and CD11c. Over amino acids (aa) 25-698 (the ECD), mouse VCAM-1 shares approximately 75% and 86% aa sequence identity with human and rat VCAM-1, respectively. During the inflammatory adhesion mechanism, activated integrins halt rolling leukocytes and attach them firmly to the vascular endothelium. They do this by binding to their ligands, for example VCAM-1, on endothelium. The VCAM-1: VLA-4 interaction is thought to be involved in the extravasation of white blood cells through the blood vessel wall to sites of inflammation. ELISA techniques have also shown that detectable levels of soluble VCAM-1 are present in the biological fluids of apparently normal individuals. Within the context, a number of studies have reported that levels of VCAM-1 may be elevated or lowered in subjects with a variety of pathological conditions.