ProDots Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

Supplied as ready-to-use 5 ug protein balls

Pre-aliquoted, lyophilized protein dots for use in cell culture medium

  • Rolls out of bottle for easy cell culture medium preparation
  • Eliminates time spent aliquoting
  • One protein dot can be used to make 500 mL of 10 ng/mL cell culture medium

Why use ProDots™ Proteins Instead of Standard Lyophilized Protein?

ProDots® proteins are designed to reduce cell culture media preparation time while ensuring optimal protein recovery and bioactivity. Unlike standard lyophilized protein, which is shipped as a diffuse residue within a vial, ProDots® proteins are neatly bundled into the shape of a ball. In this form ProDots® proteins can be rolled directly into cell culture media. ProDots® proteins rehydrate instantly in media to maximize the recovery of purchased protein and to reliably reconstitute it at a desired concentration for use in cell culture media. ProDots® proteins can be conveniently stored at room temperature where they will remain stable for 6 months or at 4 ºC where they will remain stable for 12 months. The accessible storage and high stability of ProDots® proteins makes them ideal for quick and easy preparation of cell culture media.

What are ProDots® Proteins?

ProDots® proteins are R&D Systems industry-leading quality, highly bioactive proteins packaged into easy-to-use lyophilized “dots”. Designed to be stable at 4 ºC and to dissolve instantly, ProDots® proteins can be rolled into cell culture media to quickly produce media with a desired working protein concentration.

  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Ala279 - Ser390
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    12.8 (monomer) kDa
    12 kDa, reducing conditions, 24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Reconstitution Add ProDot directly to the medium or reconstitute in the vial at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Note: Purified recombinant human TGF-beta 1 is an extremely hydrophobic protein that adheres strongly to surfaces.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
• 6 months from date of receipt at 2-8 °C as supplied.
• 1 month at 2-8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
• 3 months at -20 to -80 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
1 μg/lane of ProDots® Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 wasresolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR)conditions and visualized with silver staining, showing singlebands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
ProDots® Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 inhibitsRecombinant Mouse IL-4 (R&D Systems, Catalog # 404-ML)induced proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 istypically 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
Background: TGF-beta 1

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF-beta molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeted deletions of these genes in mice show that each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions: TGF-beta 1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-beta 2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-beta 3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. The full range of in vitro biological activities of TGF-beta 5 has not yet been explored. However, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and TGF-beta 5 have been found to be largely interchangeable in an inhibitory bioassay, and it is anticipated that TGF-beta 5 will show a spectrum of activities similar to the other TGF-beta family members. To date, the production of TGF-beta 5 has only been demonstrated in Xenopus.

TGF-beta ligands are initially synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo proteolytic cleavage. The mature segments form active ligand dimers via a disulfide-rich core consisting of the characteristic 'cysteine knot'. TGF-beta signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, either ALK-1 or TGF-beta RI (also called ALK-5). The activated type I receptor phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for distinct actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.

  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor beta 1
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7040 (Human); 21803 (Mouse); 59086 (Rat); 397078 (Porcine); 100033900 (Equine)
  • Alternate Names:
    CEDLAP; DPD1; latency-associated peptide; TGFB; TGFB1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGFbeta 1; TGFbeta; TGF-beta-1; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1
Related Research Areas

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