Chemical Name: (3S,6R,7E,9R,10R,12R,14S,15E,17E,19E,21S,23S,26R,27R,34aS)-9,10,12,13,14,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,32,33,34,34a-Hexadecahydro-9,27-dihydroxy-3-[(1R)-2-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl]-10,21-dimethoxy-6,8,12,14,20,26-hexamethyl-23,27-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-c][1,4]oxaazacyclohentriacontine-1,5,11,28,29(4H,6H,31H)-pentone
Biological ActivityAntifungal and immunosuppressant. Specific inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin). Complexes with FKBP-12 and binds mTOR inhibiting its activity. Inhibits interleukin-2-induced phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6 kinase. Induces autophagy in yeast and mammalian cell lines. Drives hPSC differentiation to mesendoderm and blood progenitor cells. Also used as a chemical dimerizer; rapamycin and GA3-AM (Cat. No. 5407) chemically inducible dimerization systems are orthogonal. Inhibits MERS-CoV infection of Huh7 cells in a plaque reduction assay.
External Portal InformationChemicalprobes.org is a portal that offers independent guidance on the selection and/or application of small molecules for research. The use of Rapamycin is reviewed on the chemical probes website.
The technical data provided above is for guidance only.
For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Pharmacological modulation of autophagy: therapeutic potential and persisting obstacles.
Galluzzi et al.
Rapamycin selectively inhibits interleukin-2 activation of p70 S6 kinase.
Kuo et al.
Rapamycins: mechanism of action and cellular resistance.
Huang et al.
Cancer Biol.Ther., 2003;2:221
Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.
Kobayashi et al.
Cancer Sci., 2007;98:726
A multi-lineage screen reveals mTORC1 inhibition enhances human pluripotent stem cell mesendoderm and blood progenitor production.
Nazareth et al.
Stem Cell Reports, 2016;6:679
Rapid and orthogonal logic gating with a gibberellin-induced dimerization system
Miyamoto et al.
Antiviral potential of ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling modulation for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection as identified by temporal kinome analysis.
Kindrachuk et al.
Antimicrob.Agents Chemother., 2015;59:1088
Citations for Rapamycin
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Rapamycin include:
48 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Ras-Induced miR-146a and 193a Target Jmjd6 to Regulate Melanoma Progression.
Authors: Anelli Et al.
Front Genet 2019;9:675
Direct Gαq Gating Is the Sole Mechanism for TRPM8 Inhibition Caused by Bradykinin Receptor Activation.
Cell Rep 2019;27:3672
Melatonin: The smart molecule that differentially modulates autophagy in tumor and normal placental cells.
Authors: Sagrillo-Fagundes Et al.
PLoS One 2019;14:e0202458
Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein-Alpha Promotes Arc Protein Synthesis in Hippocampal Neurons.
Authors: Livingstone Et al.
Front Mol Neurosci 2019;12:198
Evidence that TLR4 Is Not a Receptor for Saturated Fatty Acids but Mediates Lipid-Induced Inflammation by Reprogramming Macrophage Metabolism.
Authors: Lancaster Et al.
Cell Metab 2018;27:1096
Upregulation of IRS1 Enhances IGF1 Response in Y537S and D538G ESR1 Mutant Breast Cancer Cells.
Authors: Li Et al.
Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates dexamethasome-induced apoptosis by inducing adaptive autophagy via GPR120 in murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Authors: Gao Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2016;7:e2235
Vitamin C alleviates aging defects in a stem cell model for Werner syndrome.
Authors: Li Et al.
Protein Cell 2016;7:478
Diagnostic and clinical relevance of the autophago-lysosomal network in human gliomas.
Authors: Jennewein Et al.
Activation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla Contributes to the Maintenance of Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rat.
Authors: Wang Et al.
Neural Plast 2016;2015:394820
Bone morphogenetic protein dominantly suppresses epidermal growth factor-induced proliferative expansion of adult forebrain neural precursors.
Authors: Joppé Et al.
Nat Cell Biol 2015;9:407
Modulation of BK channels contributes to activity-dependent increase of excitability through MTORC1 activity in CA1 pyramidal cells of mouse hippocampus.
Authors: Springer Et al.
Mol Biol Cell 2015;8:451
PAK2 is an effector of TSC1/2 signaling independent of mTOR and a potential therapeutic target for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.
Authors: Alves Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;5:14534
GSK3-mediated raptor phosphorylation supports amino-acid-dependent mTORC1-directed signalling.
Authors: Stretton Et al.
Front Neurosci 2015;470:207
A novel MEK-ERK-AMPK signaling axis controls chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent survival in human mature dendritic cells.
Authors: López-Cotarelo Et al.
Mol Brain 2015;290:827
Inflammation-induced desmoglein-2 ectodomain shedding compromises the mucosal barrier.
Authors: Kamekura Et al.
Biochem J 2015;26:3165
Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Cell Death in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Repressing mTOR via AMPK Activation and PI3K/Akt Inhibition.
Authors: Kim Et al.
Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:239764
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.
Authors: Salmond Et al.
J Immunol 2015;195:4615
Cardiolipin remodeling by TAZ/tafazzin is selectively required for the initiation of mitophagy.
Authors: Hsu Et al.
Anti-Tumor Activity of Yuanhuacine by Regulating AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway and Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
Authors: Kang Et al.
PLoS One 2015;10:e0144368
SILAC-Based Mass Spectrometry Analysis Reveals That Epibrassinolide Induces Apoptosis via Activating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Authors: Obakan Et al.
PLoS One 2015;10:e0135788
SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
Authors: Wang Et al.
PLoS One 2014;8:e83941
Angiogenic growth factors augment K-Cl cotransporter expression in erythroid cells via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.
Authors: Gonsalves Et al.
Am J Hematol 2014;89:273
West nile virus-induced activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 supports viral growth and viral protein expression.
Authors: Shives Et al.
J Virol 2014;88:9458
Interaction of mTOR and Erk1/2 signaling to regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation.
Authors: Dai Et al.
Long-term potentiation can be induced in the CA1 region of hippocampus in the absence of αCaMKII T286-autophosphorylation.
Authors: Villers Et al.
Learn Mem 2014;21:616
A genetic screen identifies an LKB1-MARK signalling axis controlling the Hippo-YAP pathway.
Authors: Mohseni Et al.
J Virol 2014;16:108
Adaptation to mTOR kinase inhibitors by amplification of eIF4E to maintain cap-dependent translation.
Authors: Cope Et al.
J Cell Sci 2014;127:788
Parallel measurement of dynamic changes in translation rates in single cells.
Authors: Han Et al.
Nat Methods 2014;11:86
Inhibition of autophagy as a new means of improving chemotherapy efficiency in high-LC3B triple-negative breast cancers.
Authors: Lefort Et al.
Suppression of MAPK/JNK-MTORC1 signaling leads to premature loss of organelles and nuclei by autophagy during terminal differentiation of lens fiber cells.
Authors: Basu Et al.
Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin mediates rat pain-related responses induced by BmK I, a sodium channel-specific modulator.
Authors: Jiang Et al.
Mol Pain 2013;9:50
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) prevents dendritic cell maturation, induces apoptosis, and triggers release of proinflammatory cytokines: potential links to HSV-HIV synergy.
Authors: Stefanidou Et al.
J Biol Chem 2013;87:1443
Neuroprotection through excitability and mTOR required in ALS motoneurons to delay disease and extend survival.
Authors: Saxena Et al.
Post-transcriptional regulation of GABAB receptor and GIRK1 channels by Nogo receptor 1.
Authors: Murthy Et al.
Cereb Cortex 2013;6:30
Asymmetrical synaptic cooperation between cortical and thalamic inputs to the amygdale.
Identification of repurposed small molecule drugs for chordoma therapy.
Authors: Xia Et al.
Cancer Biol Ther 2013;14:638
Ceramide 1-phosphate stimulates proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts.
Authors: Gangoiti Et al.
Immunohistochemical detection of cytoplasmic LC3 puncta in human cancer specimens.
Authors: Ladoire Et al.
Fucoidan from seaweed Fucus vesiculosus inhibits migration and invasion of human lung cancer cell via PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways.
Authors: Lee Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e50624
Ins-like growth factors promote vasculogenesis in embryonic stem cells.
Authors: Piecewicz Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e32191
Passenger deletions generate therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer.
Authors: Muller Et al.
Erlotinib antagonizes ABC transporters in acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Lainey Et al.
Cell Cycle 2012;11:4079
Pro-autophagic polyphenols reduce the acetylation of cytoplasmic proteins.
Authors: Pietrocola Et al.
Cell Cycle 2012;11:3851
Docosahexaenoic acid induces autophagy through p53/AMPK/mTOR signaling and promotes apoptosis in human cancer cells harboring wild-type p53.
Authors: Jing Et al.
Sci Rep 2011;7:1348
The angiogenic factor angiopoietin-1 is a proneurogenic peptide on subventricular zone stem/progenitor cells.
Authors: Rosa Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:4573
BC1 regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated neuronal excitability.
Authors: Zhong Et al.
J Neurosci 2009;29:9977
Dysregulated metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent translation of AMPA receptor and postsynaptic density-95 mRNAs at synapses in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
Authors: Muddashetty Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:5338
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Rapamycin treatment (10nM) on human embryonic stem cells could enhance some cartilage differentiation markers such as SOX9.