Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein E3 Protein, CF

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R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (5)

Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein E3 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA.

When Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein E3/ApoE3 is immobilized at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well), the concentration of recombinant mouse VLDL R that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is found to be approximately 0.075 ‑ 0.375 μg/mL.

E. coli-derived human Apolipoprotein E3/ApoE3 protein
Lys19-His317, with an N-terminal Met and 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
35.2 kDa

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MOPS, NaCl, CHAPS and TCEP.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
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Background: Apolipoprotein E3/ApoE3

ApoE is a major protein component of serum LDL, VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons. It is produced predominantly by hepatocytes, macrophages, and non-neuronal cells in the CNS. ApoE-containing particles transport triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues for cellular uptake and catabolism (1 - 4). Mature human ApoE is a 34 kDa glycoprotein that consists of an N-terminal domain composed of four bundled alpha -helices, plus a hinge region and an extended alpha -helical C-terminal domain (2, 5). Its amphipathic nature and flexible structure enables it to adopt dramatically different conformations upon lipid association (2). ApoE is monomeric in lipid particles, although it forms oligomers when lipid-free (6). ApoE3 is the most abundant of the three common alleles in human; ApoE2 and ApoE4 differ by single aa substitutions (1). Mature human ApoE shares 71% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat ApoE. LDL receptor family proteins preferentially bind and internalize the lipid-bound form of ApoE with the exception of VLDLR which also efficiently internalizes lipid-free ApoE (7, 8). Lipoprotein uptake is facilitated by the initial binding of ApoE to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) (9). Receptor/HSPG binding and lipid interactions primarily involve the N- and C-terminal regions of ApoE, respectively (2). Recycled lipid-free ApoE is formed into HDL particles through interactions with the lipid transporter ABCA1 (10). High cellular sterol content activates the nuclear hormone receptor LXR which promotes increased ApoE synthesis and increased sterol efflux, while low sterol content induces LDL R expression with increased sterol uptake and decreased ApoE production (11). ApoE3 dampens the TNF-alpha induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells (12). In the CNS, ApoE blocks production of the amyloid A beta peptide by inhibiting the gamma -secretase cleavage of APP (13). It also complexes with A beta and promotes A beta internalization via LRP2 (14, 15).

  1. Martins, I.J. et al. (2006) Mol. Pschiatry 11:721.
  2. Hatters, D.M. et al. (2006) Trends Biochem. Sci. 31:445.
  3. Heeren, J. et al. (2006) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 26:442.
  4. Mahley, R.W. et al. (1984) J. Lipid. Res. 25:1277.
  5. Zannis, V.I. et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259:5495.
  6. Perugini, M.A. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:36758.
  7. Ruiz, J. et al. (2005) J. Lipid Res. 46:1721.
  8. Chroni, A. et al. (2005) Biochemistry 44:13132.
  9. Futamura, M. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:5414.
  10. Krimbou, L. et al. (2004) J. Lipid. Res. 45:839.
  11. Lucic, D. et al. (2007) J. Lipid Res. 48:366.
  12. Mullick, A.E. et al. (2007) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27:339.
  13. Irizarry, M.C. et al. (2004) J. Neurochem. 90:1132.
  14. Naslund, J. et al. (1995) Neuron 15:219.
  15. Zerbinatti, C.V. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:36180.
Entrez Gene IDs
348 (Human); 11816 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
AD2; Apo-E; ApoE4; apolipoprotein E; Apolipoprotein E3; LDLCQ5; LPG

Citations for Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein E3 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

5 Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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  1. Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine
    Authors: H Leeman, E Kaminska, D Green, M Bodman-Smi, A Gravett, K Bodman-Smi, J Copier, G Coulton, A Fusi, AG Dalgleish
    Transl Oncol, 2019;12(3):397-403.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  2. A� flow cytometry-based in vitro assay reveals that formation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-amyloid beta complexes depends on ApoE isoform- and cell type
    Authors: E Kara, JD Marks, AD Roe, C Commins, Z Fan, M Calvo-Rodr, S Wegmann, E Hudry, BT Hyman
    J. Biol. Chem., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.
    Authors: Landowski L, Pavez M, Brown L, Gasperini R, Taylor B, West A, Foa L
    J Biol Chem, 2016;291(3):1092-102.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Visualizing lipid-formulated siRNA release from endosomes and target gene knockdown.
    Authors: Wittrup A, Ai A, Liu X, Hamar P, Trifonova R, Charisse K, Manoharan M, Kirchhausen T, Lieberman J
    Nat Biotechnol, 2015;33(8):870-6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Ficolin-2 inhibits hepatitis C virus infection, whereas apolipoprotein E3 mediates viral immune escape.
    Authors: Zhao Y, Ren Y, Zhang X, Zhao P, Tao W, Zhong J, Li Q, Zhang X
    J Immunol, 2014;193(2):783-96.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Functional ELISA


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