Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein

Newer Version Available: 9279-GD
A New rh GDF-15 is Now Available! E. coli-expressed; Lower endotoxin specification; Competitively priced!
Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
957-GD-025
Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein Data
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Product Details
Citations (24)
FAQs
Reviews (2)

Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to activate SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.4-4 ng/mL.
Source
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human GDF-15 protein
Ala197-Ile308, with an N-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
His & Asn199
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
13 kDa (monomer)
SDS-PAGE
14 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

957-GD

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCI containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

957-GD/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100-300 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCI.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Image

Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Catalog # 957-GD) activates SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50for this effect is 0.4-4 ng/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: GDF-15

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), placental transforming growth factor-beta, prostate-derived factor, and placental bone morphogenetic protein, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate and colon. It is also widely expressed in brain. Similarly to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain contains two additional cysteine residues that form a fourth intrachain disulfide bond. Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 112 amino acid residues. Mature human GDF-15 shares 66.1% and 68.7% amino acid sequence similarity with rat and mouse GDF-15, respectively, which are remarkably low homologies between species in TGF-beta superfamily. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, induction of cartilage formation, early‑stage endochonadal bone formation, and promotion of neuronal survival.

References
  1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
  2. Böttner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
  3. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1998) J. Leukoc. Biol 65:2.
  4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J B.C 20:16911.
  5. Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
  6. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
  7. Schober, A. et al. (2001) J. Comp. Neurol. 439:32.
Long Name
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

Citations for Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

24 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Circulating levels of GDF15 in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
    Authors: A Melvin, E Lacerda, HM Dockrell, S O'Rahilly, L Nacul
    J Transl Med, 2019;17(1):409.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  2. Development of a novel and rapid measurement system for growth differentiation factor-15, progranulin, and osteopontin in uterine sarcoma
    Authors: M Maeno, T Mizutani, H Tsuyoshi, S Yamada, S Ishikane, S Kawabe, K Nishimura, M Yamada, K Miyamoto, Y Yoshida
    Endocr. J., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: Standard
  3. Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion by Ras Suppressor-1 (RSU-1) Silencing Is Reversed by Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15)
    Authors: V Gkretsi, M Louca, A Stylianou, G Minadakis, GM Spyrou, T Stylianopo
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019;20(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Reduced oxidative capacity in macrophages results in systemic insulin resistance
    Authors: SB Jung, MJ Choi, D Ryu, HS Yi, SE Lee, JY Chang, HK Chung, YK Kim, SG Kang, JH Lee, KS Kim, HJ Kim, CS Kim, CH Lee, RW Williams, H Kim, HK Lee, J Auwerx, M Shong
    Nat Commun, 2018;9(1):1551.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  5. GDF15 contributes to radioresistance and cancer stemness of head and neck cancer by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway
    Authors: YL Li, JT Chang, LY Lee, KH Fan, YC Lu, YC Li, CH Chiang, GR You, HY Chen, AJ Cheng
    Oncotarget, 2017;8(1):1508-1528.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. TGF-? contamination of purified recombinant GDF15
    Authors: OE Olsen, A Skjærvik, BF Størdal, A Sundan, T Holien
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(11):e0187349.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. An autocrine/paracrine circuit of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 has a role for maintenance of breast cancer stem-like cells
    Authors: A Sasahara, K Tominaga, T Nishimura, M Yano, E Kiyokawa, M Noguchi, M Noguchi, H Kanauchi, T Ogawa, H Minato, K Tada, Y Seto, A Tojo, N Gotoh
    Oncotarget, 2017;8(15):24869-24881.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. GDF15/MIC1 and MMP9 Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Parkinson's Disease and Lewy Body Dementia.
    Authors: Walter Maetzler, Willy Deleersni, Valérie Hanssens, Alice Bernard, Kathrin Brockmann, Justus Marquetan, Isabel Wurster, Tim W Rattay, Lorenzo Roncoroni, Eva Schaeffer, Stefanie Lerche, Anja Apel, Christian Deuschle, Daniela Berg
    PLoS ONE, 2016;0(0):1932-6203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Beads
    Applications: Standard
  9. Growth Differentiation Factor-15-Induced Contractile Activity and Extracellular Matrix Production in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 2016;57(15):6482-6495.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 biomarker serum immunoassay in combination with PSA is a more specific diagnostic tool for detection of prostate cancer.
    Authors: Li, Ji, Veltri, Robert W, Yuan, Zhen, Christudass, Christhu, Mandecki, Wlodek
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0122249.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  11. Marked improvement of cytotoxic effects induced by docetaxel on highly metastatic and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells by downregulating macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1.
    Authors: Mimeault, M, Johansson, S L, Batra, S K
    Br J Cancer, 2013;108(5):1079-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. GDF-15 prevents platelet integrin activation and thrombus formation.
    Authors: Rossaint J, Vestweber D, Zarbock A
    J Thromb Haemost, 2013;11(2):335-44.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Growth differentiation factor-15 suppresses maturation and function of dendritic cells and inhibits tumor-specific immune response.
    Authors: Zhou Z, Li W, Song Y, Wang L, Zhang K, Yang J, Zhang W, Su H, Zhang Y
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e78618.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Wild-type p53 attenuates cancer cell motility by inducing growth differentiation factor-15 expression.
    Authors: Cheng JC, Chang HM, Leung PC
    Endocrinology, 2011;152(8):2987-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Soluble Endoglin Specifically Binds Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 9 and 10 via Its Orphan Domain, Inhibits Blood Vessel Formation, and Suppresses Tumor Growth.
    Authors: Castonguay R, Werner ED, Matthews RG, Presman E, Mulivor AW, Solban N, Sako D, Pearsall RS, Underwood KW, Seehra J, Kumar R, Grinberg AV
    J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(34):30034-46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  16. Deficiency of liver sinusoidal scavenger receptors stabilin-1 and -2 in mice causes glomerulofibrotic nephropathy via impaired hepatic clearance of noxious blood factors.
    Authors: Schledzewski K, Geraud C, Arnold B, Wang S, Grone HJ, Kempf T, Wollert KC, Straub BK, Schirmacher P, Demory A, Schonhaber H, Gratchev A, Dietz L, Thierse HJ, Kzhyshkowska J, Goerdt S
    J. Clin. Invest., 2011;121(2):703-14.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  17. Growth differentiation factor 15 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes.
    Authors: Si Y, Liu X, Cheng M, Wang M, Gong Q, Yang Y, Wang T, Yang W
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(5):e19967.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 regulates melanoma vascular development.
    Authors: Huh SJ, Chung CY, Sharma A
    Am. J. Pathol., 2010;176(6):2948-57.
    Species: Chicken
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  19. Growth differentiation factor-15 predicts mortality and morbidity after cardiac resynchronization therapy.
    Authors: Foley PW, Stegemann B, Ng K, Ramachandran S, Proudler A, Frenneaux MP, Ng LL, Leyva F
    Eur. Heart J., 2009;30(22):2749-57.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  20. Progressive postnatal motoneuron loss in mice lacking GDF-15.
    Authors: Strelau J, Strzelczyk A, Rusu P, Bendner G, Wiese S, Diella F, Altick AL, von Bartheld CS, Klein R, Sendtner M, Unsicker K
    J. Neurosci., 2009;29(43):13640-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  21. Growth differentiation factor-15 as a prognostic marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
    Authors: Khan SQ, Ng K, Dhillon O, Kelly D, Quinn P, Squire IB, Davies JE, Ng LL
    Eur. Heart J., 2009;30(9):1057-65.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  22. Identification of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 in adipose tissue and its secretion as an adipokine by human adipocytes.
    Authors: Ding Q, Mracek T, Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Kos K, Wilding J, Trayhurn P, Bing C
    Endocrinology, 2009;150(4):1688-96.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  23. High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin.
    Authors: Tanno T, Bhanu NV, Oneal PA, Goh SH, Staker P, Lee YT, Moroney JW, Reed CH, Luban NL, Wang RH, Eling TE, Childs R, Ganz T, Leitman SF, Fucharoen S, Miller JL
    Nat. Med., 2007;13(9):1096-101.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  24. Prognostic value of growth-differentiation factor-15 in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.
    Authors: Wollert KC, Kempf T, Peter T, Olofsson S, James S, Johnston N, Lindahl B, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Simoons ML, Armstrong PW, Califf RM, Drexler H, Wallentin L
    Circulation, 2007;115(8):962-71.

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Reviews for Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein

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Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein
By Anonymous on 09/05/2020
Application: In vitro bioactivity in cell culture
Reason for Rating: I used two lots of GDF15 that were mostly used here were later tested for TGF-beta content by R&amp;D Systems.

Cells were treated, washed with ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and detect by WB assay.


Recombinant Human GDF-15 (CHO-expressed) Protein
By Anonymous on 12/01/2017
Application: Immunoassay Standard