Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF

  
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Recombinant Human GDF-15 is used at 0.5 µg/mL, the concentration of Recombinant Human Activin RIB/ALK-4 Fc Chimera Recombinant Human Activin RIB/ALK‑4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 808-AR) that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is approximately 0.5-3 μg/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala197-Ile308
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala197
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    12 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    12 kDa, reducing conditions
9279-GD
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
When Recombinant Human GSF-15 (Catalog # 9279-GD) is used at0.5 µg/mL, Recombinant Human Activin RIB/ALK-4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 808-AR) binds with an ED50 of 0.5-3 μg/mL.
Background: GDF-15
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily (1, 2). Human GDF-15 shares 66% and 68% amino acid sequence identity with the rat and mouse proteins, respectively (3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, the GDF-15 proprotein is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein (4). The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond (5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein and signals through the heterodimeric receptor composed of TGF-beta RI/ALK-5 and TGF-beta RII (6). GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of TNF-alpha production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (1, 5). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-9). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, inhibiting CXCL1-induced neutrophil adhesion, regulating angiogenesis, and inhibiting norepinephrine-induced mycardial hypertrophy (6, 10-15).
  • References:
    1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
    2. Unsicker, K. et al. (2013) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 24:373.
    3. Bottner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
    4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:16911.
    5. Paralkar, V.M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760.
    6. Artz, A. et al. (2016) Blood 128:529.
    7. Johnen, H. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:1333.
    8. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
    9. Strelau, J. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29:13640.
    10. Whitson, R.J. et al. (2013) J. Cell. Biochem. 114:1424.
    11. Rossaint, J. et al. (2013) J. Thromb. Haemost. 11:335.
    12. Song, H. et al. (2012) Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:4017.
    13. Preusch, M.R. et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:19.
    14. Kempf, T. et al. (2011) Nat. Med. 17:581.
    15. Xu, X.-Y. et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289:10084.
  • Long Name:
    Growth Differentiation Factor 15
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
  • Alternate Names:
    GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta
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