Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
9279-GD-050
Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein Bioactivity
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Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to activate SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-2 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human GDF-15 protein
Ala197-Ile308
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ala197
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
12 kDa
SDS-PAGE
12 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

9279-GD

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Image

Bioactivity Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Catalog # 9270-GD) activates SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-2 ng/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: GDF-15

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily (1, 2). Human GDF-15 shares 66% and 68% amino acid sequence identity with the rat and mouse proteins, respectively (3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, the GDF-15 proprotein is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein (4). The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond (5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein and signals through the heterodimeric receptor composed of TGF-beta RI/ALK-5 and TGF-beta RII (6). GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of TNF-alpha production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (1, 5). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-9). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, inhibiting CXCL1-induced neutrophil adhesion, regulating angiogenesis, and inhibiting norepinephrine-induced mycardial hypertrophy (6, 10-15).

References
  1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
  2. Unsicker, K. et al. (2013) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 24:373.
  3. Bottner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
  4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:16911.
  5. Paralkar, V.M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760.
  6. Artz, A. et al. (2016) Blood 128:529.
  7. Johnen, H. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:1333.
  8. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
  9. Strelau, J. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29:13640.
  10. Whitson, R.J. et al. (2013) J. Cell. Biochem. 114:1424.
  11. Rossaint, J. et al. (2013) J. Thromb. Haemost. 11:335.
  12. Song, H. et al. (2012) Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:4017.
  13. Preusch, M.R. et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:19.
  14. Kempf, T. et al. (2011) Nat. Med. 17:581.
  15. Xu, X.-Y. et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289:10084.
Long Name
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

FAQs

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Reviews for Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 11/08/2019
Application: Immunoassay Standard

Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 06/11/2019
Application: Immunoassay Standard

Used RnD Systems antibodies MAB957 and BAF940 in an GDF-15 immunoassay.