Recombinant Human GDF-15 (E. coli-expressed) Protein, CF Summary
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Catalog # 9270-GD) activates SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-2 ng/mL.
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily (1, 2). Human GDF-15 shares 66% and 68% amino acid sequence identity with the rat and mouse proteins, respectively (3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, the GDF-15 proprotein is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein (4). The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond (5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein and signals through the heterodimeric receptor composed of TGF-beta RI/ALK-5 and TGF-beta RII (6). GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of TNF-alpha production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (1, 5). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-9). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, inhibiting CXCL1-induced neutrophil adhesion, regulating angiogenesis, and inhibiting norepinephrine-induced mycardial hypertrophy (6, 10-15).
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