Recombinant Human GDF-5 (Catalog # 8340-G5) induces alkaline phosphatase production by ATDC5 mouse chondrogenic cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-1.2 μg/mL.
Growth Differentiation Factor-5 (GDF-5; also called BMP-14 and CDMP-1) is a member of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins (1, 2). Human GDF-5, -6, and -7 are a defined subgroup of the BMP family (3). GDF-5 is synthesized as a homodimeric precursor protein consisting of a 354 amino acid (aa) N-terminal pro-region and a 120 aa C-terminal mature peptide. Mature human GDF-5 shares 99% aa sequence identity with both mature mouse and rat GDF-5. GDF-5 signaling is mediated by formation of a heterodimeric complex consisting of a type 1 (BMPR-IB) and a type II (BMPR-II or Activin RII) serine/threonine kinase receptor which results in the phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic Smad proteins (Smad1, 5, and 8) (4, 5). Similar to other BMP family proteins, GDF-5 signaling is antagonized by Noggin (6). GDF-5 is involved in multiple developmental processes including limb generation, cartilage development, joint formation, bone morphogenesis, cell survival, and neuritogenesis (7-11). Exogenous GDF-5 has been reported to promote chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells in vivo and in vitro (12-14). Inhibition of GDF-5 expression or alteration of its signaling can facilitate the development of osteoarthritis (15-18).
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