Recombinant Human GDF-9 Protein, CF

(1 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to induce cell death using Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cells. The ED50 for this effect is 50-250 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived Gly320-Arg454 (Gly391Arg)
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Gly320
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    16 kDa (monomer)
  • SDS-PAGE
    20-22 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
8266-G9/CF
 
8266-G9
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in strerile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Human GDF-9 (Catalog # 8266-G9/CF) induces Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cell death. The ED50 for this effect is 50-250 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human GDF-9 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 20 kDa and 26 kDa, respectively.
Background: GDF-9

Growth Differentiation Factor-9 (GDF-9) is an oocyte secreted paracrine factor in the TGF-beta superfamily (1, 2). It is synthesized as a prepropeptide and is subsequently processed by proteases into the mature protein (1, 2). Mature human GDF-9 has a predicted molecular weight of 16 kDa and shares 89.6% and 91.9% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse and rat orthologs, respectively. Despite the high homology, mouse GDF-9 is secreted in an active form, while human GDF-9 is latent. A single mutation Gly391Arg increases the affinity between human GDF-9 and its signaling receptors and make it more active (3). It forms both non-covalent homodimers and heterodimers with BMP-15, which is coordinately expressed with GDF-9 in the oocyte. (2, 4, 5). GDF-9 signals through TGF-beta RI/ALK-5 and BMPR-II, while the GDF-9:BMP-15 heterodimer is believed to signal through BMPR-II, ALK 4/5/7, and BMPR-IB/ALK-6 (5-8). SMAD2 and SMAD3 are phosphorylated following activation of receptor complexes by GDF-9 (5, 6). GDF-9 functions as a paracrine factor in the development of primary follicles in the ovary. It is critical for the growth of granulosa and theca cells and for the differentiation and maturation of the oocyte (5, 9-11). GDF-9 is thought to act synergistically with BMP-15 to control development of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex (4-6). In humans, GDF-9:BMP-15 heterodimers have been shown to be more potent regulators of granulosa cell functions compared to GDF-9 homodimers (6). Aberrant GDF-9 expression and activation is associated with a multitude of common human ovarian disorders including premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovary syndrome (10, 12-14). In breast and bladder cancers, GDF-9 is believed to function as a tumor suppressor because its expression levels are inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of the cancer (15, 16). In prostate cancer, however, GDF-9 may enhance tumor progression by promoting tumor cell growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (17, 18).

  • References:
    1. McGrath, S. A. et al. (1995) Mol. Endocrinol. 9:131.
    2. Aaltonen, J. et al. (1999) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84:2744.
    3. Simpson, C.M. et al. (2012) 153:1301.
    4. Liao, W.X. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:3713.
    5. Gilchrist, R.B. et al. (2008) Hum. Reprod. Update 14:159.
    6. Peng, J. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:E776.
    7. Vitt, U.A. et al. (2002) Biol. Reprod. 67:473.
    8. Mazerbourg, S. et al. (2004) Mol. Endocrinol. 18:653.
    9. Hreinsson, J.G. et al. (2002) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:316.
    10. Otsuka, F. et al. (2011) Mol. Reprod. Dev. 78:9.
    11. Dong, J. et al. (1996) Nature 383:531.
    12. Zhao, S.Y. et al. (2010) Fertil. Steril. 94:261.
    13. Wei, L.N. et al. (2011) Fertil. Steril. 96:464.
    14. Simpson, C.M. et al. (2014) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. [Epub ahead of print].
    15. Hanavadi, S. et al. (2007) Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14:2159.
    16. Du, P. et al. (2012) Int. J. Mol. Med. 29:428.
    17. Bokobza, S.M. et al. (2010) J. Cell. Physiol. 225:529.
    18. Bokobza, S.M. et al. (2011) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 349:33.
  • Long Name:
    Growth Differentiation Factor 9
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    2661 (Human); 14566 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    GDF9; GDF-9; growth differentiation factor 9; growth/differentiation factor 9
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citations: Showing 1 - 1

  1. In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into ovarian follicle-like cells
    Authors: D Jung, J Xiong, M Ye, X Qin, L Li, S Cheng, M Luo, J Peng, J Dong, F Tang, W Shen, MM Matzuk, K Kee
    Nat Commun, 2017;8(0):15680.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay

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