Recombinant Human GM-CSF, Animal-Free Protein

  

Animal Free Proteins
Animal-free proteins are particularly important for researchers concerned with experimental variables caused by trace animal components or mammalian pathogens. Our products generated under animal-free conditions share the same biological activities as those produced using our standard laboratory techniques.

  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cells. Kitamura, T. et al. (1989) J. Cell Physiol. 140:323. The ED50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.
    The specific activity of Recombinant Human GM-CSF is approximately 1.5 x 104 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human GM-CSF WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 88/646).
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala18-Glu144 Produced using non-animal reagents in an animal-free laboratory.
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala18
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    14 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    13 kDa, reducing conditions
AFL215
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Animal Free Proteins
Animal-free proteins are particularly important for researchers concerned with experimental variables caused by trace animal components or mammalian pathogens. Our products generated under animal-free conditions share the same biological activities as those produced using our standard laboratory techniques.

Data Images
Animal-FreeTM Recombinant Human GM-CSF (Catalog # AFL215) stimulates cell proliferation of the TF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.
1 μg/lane of Animal-FreeTM Recombinant Human IL-4 (Catalog # AFL215) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 13 kDa.
Background: GM-CSF
GM-CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM-CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils (1, 2). GM-CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (3 - 5). It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and GM-CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines (6, 7). The 22 kDa glycosylated GM-CSF, similar to IL-3 and IL-5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled alpha -helices (8 - 12). Mature human GM-CSF shares 63%-70% amino acid sequence identity with canine, feline, porcine, and rat GM-CSF and 54% with mouse GM-CSF. GM-CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM-CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta  chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high-affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-5 (13, 14). In addition, GM-CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM-CSF R alpha (15). Human GM-CSF is active on canine and feline cells but not on murine cells (16-18).
  • References:
    1. Martinez-Moczygemba, M. and D.P. Huston (2003) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112:653.
    2. Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:509.
    3. Eksioglu, E.A. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1163.
    4. Cao, Y. (2007) J. Clin. Invest. 117:2362.
    5. Fleetwood, A.J. et al. (2005) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 25:405.
    6. Heuser, M. et al. (2007) Semin. Hematol. 44:148.
    7. Hege, K.M. et al. (2006) Int. Rev. Immunol. 25:321.
    8. Kaushansky, K. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31:1881.
    9. Diederichs, K. et al. (1991) Science 254:1779.
    10. Cantrell, M.A. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:6250.
    11. Lee, F. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:4360.
    12. Wong, G.G. et al. (1985) Science 228:810.
    13. Onetto-Pothier, N. et al. (1990) Blood 75:59.
    14. Hayashida, K. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:9655.
    15. Pelley, J.L. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1483.
    16. Hogge, G.S. et al. (1990) Cancer Gene Ther. 6:26.
    17. Sprague, W.S. et al. (2005) J. Comp. Pathol. 133:136.
    18. Shanafelt, A.B. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:13804.
  • Long Name:
    Granulocyte Macrophage Growth Factor
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    1437 (Human); 12981 (Mouse); 116630 (Rat); 397208 (Porcine); 403923 (Canine); 493805 (Feline)
  • Alternate Names:
    colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage); Colony-stimulating factor; CSF; CSF2; GMCSF; GM-CSF; GMCSFgranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; MGC131935; MGC138897; molgramostin; sargramostim

Animal-Free Manufacturing Conditions
Our dedicated controlled-access animal-free laboratories ensure that at no point in production are the products exposed to potential contamination by animal components or byproducts. Every stage of manufacturing is conducted in compliance with R&D Systems' stringent Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Production and purification procedures use equipment and media that are confirmed animal-free.

Production
  • All molecular biology procedures use animal-free media and dedicated labware.
  • Dedicated fermentors are utilized in committed animal-free areas.
Purification
  • Protein purification columns are animal-free.
  • Bulk proteins are filtered using animal-free filters.
  • Purified proteins are stored in animal-free containers in a dedicated cold storage room.
Quality Assurance
  • Low Endotoxin Level.
  • No impairment of biological activity.
  • High quality product obtained under stringent conditions.
  • For ex vivo research or bioproduction, additional documentation can be provided.

Please read our complete Animal-Free Statement



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