Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein, CF

GS Linker, Defined heterodimer stoichiometry
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Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein Bioactivity
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Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using PHA-stimulated human T lymphoblasts. Symons, J.A. et al. (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, a Practical Approach. Clemens, M.J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 272.
The ED50 for this effect is 0.01-0.05 ng/mL.
Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived human IL-12 protein
Human IL-12p40
Accession # P29460.1
Accession # P29459.2
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
GS-linked heterodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
59 kDa
63-75 kDa, under reducing conditions.

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100-200 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Scientific Data

Bioactivity Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human IL-12 (Catalog # 10018-IL) stimulates proliferation in PHA-activated human T lymphoblasts. The ED50 for this effect is 0.01-0.05 ng/mL.

SDS-PAGE Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein SDS-PAGE View Larger

2 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL‑12 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 63-75 kDa.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Background: IL-12

Interleukin 12, also known as natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF) or cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF), is a pleiotropic cytokine originally identified in the medium of activated human B lymphoblastoid cell lines (1). The p40 subunit of IL-12 has been shown to have extensive amino acid sequence homology to the extracellular domain of the human IL-6 receptor while the p35 subunit shows distant but significant sequence similarity to IL-6, G-CSF, and chicken MGF (2, 3). These observations have led to the suggestion that IL-12 might have evolved from a cytokine/soluble receptor complex. Human and murine IL-12 share 70% and 60% amino acid sequence homology in their p40 and p35 subunits, respectively. IL-12 apparently shows species specificity with human IL-12 reportedly showing minimal activity in the murine system. IL-12 is produced by macrophages and B lymphocytes and has been shown to have multiple effects on T cells and natural killer (NK) cells (4). These effects include inducing production of IFN-gamma and TNF by resting and activated T and NK cells, synergizing with other IFN‑gamma inducers at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. This interaction induces IFN-gamma gene expression, enhancing the cytotoxic activity of resting NK and T cells, inducing and synergizing with IL-2 in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, acting as a co-mitogen to stimulate proliferation of resting T cells, and inducing proliferation of activated T and NK cells (5). Current evidence indicates that IL‑12, produced by macrophages in response to infectious agents, is a central mediator of the cell‑mediated immune response by its actions on the development, proliferation, and activities of TH1 cells. In its role as the initiator of cell-mediated immunity, it has been suggested that IL-12 has therapeutic potential as a stimulator of cell-mediated immune responses to microbial pathogens, metastatic cancers, and viral infections such as AIDS.

  1. Gubler, U. et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88:4143.
  2. Gearing, D. et al. (1991) Cell 66:9.
  3. Merberg, D. et al. (1992) Immunology Today 13:78.
  4. Wolf, S.F. et al. (1991) Journal of Immunology 146:3074.
  5. Airoldi, I. et al. (2000) Journal of Immunology 165:6880.
Long Name
Interleukin 12
Entrez Gene IDs
3592 (Human); 16159 (Mouse); 84405 (Rat); 397053 (Porcine); 403977 (Canine); 102115316 (Cynomolgus Monkey); 493741 (Feline); 703205 (Rhesus Macaque)
Alternate Names
CLMF p35; CLMF1; Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 35 kDa subunit; IL-12 subunit p35; IL12; IL-12; IL-12, subunit p35; IL12A; interleukin 12, p35; interleukin 12A (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, cytotoxic lymphocytematuration factor 1, p35); interleukin-12 alpha chain; interleukin-12 subunit alpha; natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, 35 kD subunit; NF cell stimulatory factor chain 1; NK cell stimulatory factor chain 1; NKSF1; p35

Citation for Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. Role of CCR3 in respiratory syncytial virus infection of airway epithelial cells.
    Authors: Wellemans V, Benhassou H, Fuselier E, Bellesort F, Dury S, Lebargy F, Dormoy V, Fichel C, Naour R, Gounni A, Lamkhioued B
    iScience, 2021-11-14;24(12):103433.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay


  1. What is the difference between Recombinant Human IL-12 Protein (Catalog # 219-IL) and Recombinant Human Il-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein (Catalog # 10018-IL?

    • The Recombinant Human IL-12 Protein (Catalog # 219-IL), expressed in Sf 21 cells, is a disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of the p35 and p40 subunits. The subunits can be separated under reducing conditions. The Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein (Catalog # 10018-IL), expressed in HEK293 cells, is a chimeric protein consisting of the p35 and p40 subunits connected by a linker. These two subunits cannot be separated.

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Recombinant Human IL-12 (linked heterodimer) Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 05/02/2023
Application: Stem/Immune cell maintenance or differentiation
Reason for Rating: Induced Th1 polarization in vitro at 30 ng/mL.