Recombinant Human IL-15 GMP Protein, CF Summary
The specific activity of recombinant human IL-15 is approximately 4.5 x 105 U/μg, which is calibrated against recombinant human IL-15 WHO Standard (NIBSC code: 95/554).
Produced using non-animal reagents in an animal-free laboratory.
Manufactured and tested under current Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines.
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
GMP-grade Recombinant Human IL-15 (Catalog # 247-GMP) stimulates cell proliferation in the MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.6 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of GMP-grade Recombinant Human IL-15 (Catalog # 247-GMP) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 12 kDa.
MALDI-TOF analysis of GMP-grade Recombinant Human IL-15 (Catalog #
247-GMP). The major peak corresponds to the calculated molecular mass, 12774 Da. The minor peak at 13006 Da is a matrix-associated artifact of the MALDI-TOF.
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a widely expressed 14 kDa cytokine that is structurally and functionally related to IL-2 and plays an important role in many immunological diseases (1, 2). Mature human IL-15 shares 70% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-15. Alternative splicing generates isoforms of IL-15 with either a long or short signal peptide (LSP or SSP), and the SSP isoform is retained intracellularly (3). IL-15 binds with high affinity to IL-15 R alpha (4). It binds with lower affinity to a complex of IL-2 R beta and the common gamma chain ( gamma c) which are also subunits of the IL-2 receptor complex (5). IL-15 associates with IL-15 R alpha in the endoplasmic reticulum, and this complex is expressed on the cell surface (6). The dominant mechanism of IL-15 action is known as transpresentation in which IL-15 and IL-15 R alpha are coordinately expressed on the surface of one cell and interact with complexes of IL-2 R beta / gamma c on adjacent cells (7). This enables cells to respond to IL-15 even if they do not express IL-15 R alpha (6). In human and mouse, soluble IL-15-binding forms of IL-15 R alpha can be generated by proteolytic shedding and bind up nearly all the IL-15 in circulation (8-10). Soluble IL-15 R alpha functions as an inhibitor that limits IL-15 action (4, 9). Ligation of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15 R alpha complexes also induces reverse signaling that promotes activation of the IL-15/IL-15 R alpha expressing cells (11). IL-15 induces or enhances the differentiation, maintenance, or activation of multiple T cell subsets including NK, NKT, Th17, Treg, and CD8+ memory cells (12 - 16). An important component of these functions is the ability of
IL-15 to induce dendritic cell differentiation and inflammatory activation (11, 14). IL-15 exhibits anti-tumor activity independent of its actions on NK cells or CD8+ T cells (17). It also inhibits the deposition of lipid in adipocytes, and its circulating levels are decreased in obesity (18).
- De Sabatino, A. et al. (2011) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 22:19.
- Grabstein, K. et al. (1994) Science 264:965.
- Tagaya, Y. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:14444.
- Giri, J.G. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14:3654.
- Giri, J. et al. (1994) EMBO J. 13:2822.
- Dubois, S. et al. (2002) Immunity 17:537.
- Castillo, E.F. and K.S. Schluns (2012) Cytokine 59:479.
- Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:40368.
- Mortier, E. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 173:1681.
- Bergamaschi, C. et al. (2012) Blood 120:e1.
- Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:42192.
- Mortier, E. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 205:1213.
- Gordy, L.E. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 187:6335.
- Harris, K.M. (2011) J. Leukoc. Biol. 90:727.
- Xia, J. et al. (2010) Clin. Immunol. 134:130.
- Schluns, K.S. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:4827.
- Davies, E. et al. (2010) J. Leukoc. Biol. 88:529.
- Barra, N.G. et al. (2010) Obesity 18:1601.
Manufacturing SpecificationsGMP Proteins
R&D Systems, a Bio-Techne Brand's GMP proteins are produced according to relevant sections of the following documents: WHO TRS, No. 822, 1992 Annex 1, Good Manufacturing Practices for Biological Products; USP Chapter 1043, Ancillary Materials for Cell, Gene and Tissue-Engineered Products and USP Chapter 92, Growth Factors and Cytokines Used in Cell Therapy Manufacturing.
R&D Systems' quality focus includes:
- Manufactured and tested under an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 13485:2016 certified quality system
- Documented processes and QA control of documentation and process changes
- Personnel training programs
- Raw material testing and vendor qualification/monitoring
- Fully validated equipment, processes and test methods
- Equipment calibration schedules using a computerized calibration program
- Facility maintenance, safety programs and pest control
- Material review process for variances
- Monitoring of stability over product shelf-life
- N-terminal amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE analysis, and endotoxin level (as determined by LAL assay) performed on each bulk QC lot, not on individual bottlings of each QC lot
- Post-bottling lot-specific bioassay results (compliance with an established range) and results of microbial bioburden testing (using broth culture, Sabourand's dextrose and blood agar plates with results reported at 3 days and at 7 days)
- Host Cell Protein testing performed by ELISA
- Mycoplasma testing by ribosomal RNA hybridization assay
Production records and facilities are available for examination by appropriate personnel on-site at R&D Systems in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA.
R&D Systems sells GMP grade products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo use. They are not for in vivo use. Please read the following End User Terms prior to using this product.
Animal-Free Manufacturing Conditions
Our dedicated controlled-access animal-free laboratories ensure that at no point in production are the products exposed to potential contamination by animal components or byproducts. Every stage of manufacturing is conducted in compliance with R&D Systems' stringent Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Production and purification procedures use equipment and media that are confirmed animal-free.
- All molecular biology procedures use animal-free media and dedicated labware.
- Dedicated fermentors are utilized in committed animal-free areas.
- Protein purification columns are animal-free.
- Bulk proteins are filtered using animal-free filters.
- Purified proteins are stored in animal-free containers in a dedicated cold storage room.
- Low Endotoxin Level.
- No impairment of biological activity.
- High quality product obtained under stringent conditions.
Product Specific Notices
The End User is aware that R&D Systems, Inc. sells GMP products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo use and not for in vivo use. The End User further agrees, as a condition of the sale of R&D Systems' GMP products that: a) the End User will not use this GMP Product in any procedure wherein the product may be directly or indirectly administered to humans, unless the End User has obtained, or prior to their use will have obtained, an Investigational New Drug (IND) exemption from the FDA and will use the product only in accordance with the protocols of such IND and of the Institutional Review Board overseeing the proposed research, or b) the End User will use the products outside of the United States in accordance with the protocols of research approved by the Institutional Review Board or authorized ethics committee and regulatory agencies to which the End User is subject to in their territory.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS
The following limitation applies to R&D Systems' warranty and liability for damages: All products are warranted to meet R&D Systems' published specifications when used under normal laboratory conditions.
R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO ITS PRODUCTS. IN PARTICULAR, R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF SUITABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER PROVISIONS OF THESE TERMS AND/OR ANY OTHER AGREEMENT BETWEEN R&D SYSTEMS AND PURCHASER FOR THE PURCHASE OF THE PRODUCTS, R&D SYSTEMS' TOTAL LIABILITY TO PURCHASER ARISING FROM OR IN RELATION TO THESE TERMS, AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE PARTIES OR THE PRODUCTS, WHETHER ARISING IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID BY PURCHASER TO R&D SYSTEMS FOR THE APPLICABLE PRODUCTS. IN NO EVENT WILL R&D SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR THE COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS.
Full details of R&D Systems' Terms and Conditions of Sale can be found online at: RnDSystems.com/Legal.
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