Recombinant Human IL-18/IL-1F4 Protein

Newer Version Available: 9124-IL
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A New rh IL-18 is Now Available! Competitively priced; Higher purity; Lower endotoxin; Manufactured in-house!
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
B001-5
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (39)
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Recombinant Human IL-18/IL-1F4 Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by Colloidal Coomassie® Blue stain.
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Induction of IFN-gamma by KG-1 cell [human myelomonocyte; ATCC CCL246] in response to the recombinant human IL-18 was measured using human IFN-gamma ELISA. The activity of lot 111 was as follows: IL-18 final concentration 10 ng/mL; IFN-gamma induction 48.1 IU/mL and IL-18 final concentration 20 ng/mL; IFN-gamma induction 64.3 IU/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human IL-18/IL-1F4 protein
37-193 aa
Predicted Molecular Mass
18 kDa

Product Datasheets

B001-5

Formulation 25 μg in PBS containing 0.1% BSA and 1% sucrose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute in 250 μL of ice-cold distilled water on ice.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Store the unopened product at -20 to -70 °C. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Do not use past expiration date.
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Background: IL-18/IL-1F4

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine in the IL-1 family that exerts distinct immune effects depending on the local cytokine environment. It is expressed as a 24 kDa precursor by endothelial and epithelial cells, keratinocytes, gamma δ T cells, and phagocytes. The precursor is activated intracellularly by Caspase-1 mediated proteolysis to release the 17 kDa mature cytokine. The precursor can also be released by necrotic cells for extracellular cleavage by multiple proteases.
IL-18 activation is induced by infection or tissue damage and contributes to disease pathology in chronic inflammation (1-3). IL-18 binds to the widely expressed IL-18 R alpha which recruits IL-18 R beta to form the signaling receptor complex (4, 5). Its bioactivity is negatively regulated by interactions with IL-18 binding proteins and virally encoded IL-18BP homologs (6). In the presence of IL-12 or IL-15, IL-18 enhances anti-viral Th1 immune responses by inducing IFN-gamma production and the cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells and NK cells (7, 8). In the absence of IL-12 or IL-15, however, IL-18 promotes production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 by CD4+ T cells and basophils (9, 10). In the presence of IL-1 beta or IL-23, IL-18 induces the antigen-independent production of IL-17 by gamma δ T cells and CD4+ T cells (11). IL-18 also promotes myeloid dendritic cell maturation and triggers neutrophil respiratory burst (12, 13). In cancer, IL-18 exhibits diverse activities including enhancing anti-tumor immunity, inhibiting or promoting angiogenesis, and promoting tumor cell metastasis (14). Mature human IL-18 shares approximately 63% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-18 (15). Alternative splicing in human ovarian cancer generates an isoform that is resistant to Caspase-1 activation (16). A cell surface form can be expressed on M-CSF induced macrophages and released in response to bacterial endotoxin (17).

References
  1. Dinarello, C.A. et al. (2013) Front. Immunol. 4:289.
  2. Smith, D.E. (2011) J. Leukoc. Biol. 89:383.
  3. Gu, Y. et al. (1997) Science 275:206.
  4. Torigoe, K. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:25737.
  5. Cheung, H. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:5351.
  6. Novick, D. et al. (1999) Immunity 10:127.
  7. Fehniger, T.A. et al. (1999) J. Immunol. 162:4511.
  8. Yoshimoto, T. et al. (1998) J. Immunol. 161:3400.
  9. Yoshimoto, T. et al. (2000) Nat. Immunol. 1:132.
  10. Kroeger, K.M. et al. (2009) J. Leukoc. Biol. 86:769.
  11. Lalor, S.J. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:5738.
  12. Li, J. et al. (2004) Cell. Immunol. 227:103.
  13. Elbim, C. et al. (2005) Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:436.
  14. Fabbi, M. et al. (2015) J. Leukoc. Biol. 97:665.
  15. Ushio, S. et al. (1996) J. Immunol. 156:4274.
  16. Gaggero, A. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:7552.
  17. Bellora, F. et al. (2012) Eur. J. Immunol. 42:1618.
Long Name
Interleukin 18
Entrez Gene IDs
3606 (Human); 16173 (Mouse); 29197 (Rat); 397057 (Porcine); 574151 (Primate)
Alternate Names
Iboctadekin; IFN-gamma-inducing factor; IGIF; IGIFIL-1 gamma; IL18; IL-18; IL-18MGC12320; IL-1F4; IL1F4iboctadekin; IL-1g; Interferon gamma-inducing factor; interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor); Interleukin-1 gamma; interleukin-18

Citations for Recombinant Human IL-18/IL-1F4 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

39 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. MR1-Independent Activation of Human Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells by Mycobacteria
    Authors: S Suliman, M Murphy, M Musvosvi, A Gela, EW Meermeier, H Geldenhuys, C Hopley, A Toefy, N Bilek, A Veldsman, WA Hanekom, JL Johnson, WH Boom, G Obermoser, H Huang, M Hatherill, DM Lewinsohn, E Nemes, TJ Scriba
    J. Immunol., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Blood
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Dissection of the Effects of JAK and BTK Inhibitors on the Functionality of Healthy and Malignant Lymphocytes
    Authors: T Hofland, I de Weerdt, H Ter Burg, R de Boer, S Tannheimer, SH Tonino, AP Kater, E Eldering
    J. Immunol., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Soy isoflavones and their metabolites modulate cytokine-induced natural killer cell function
    Authors: TA Mace, MB Ware, SA King, S Loftus, MR Farren, E McMichael, S Scoville, C Geraghty, G Young, WE Carson, SK Clinton, GB Lesinski
    Sci Rep, 2019;9(1):5068.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Helicobacter pylori Exploits the NLRC4 Inflammasome to Dampen Host Defenses
    Authors: RP Semper, M Vieth, M Gerhard, R Mejías-Luq
    J. Immunol., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells have enhanced function, proliferation, and in vivo expansion against ovarian cancer cells
    Authors: LD Uppendahl, M Felices, L Bendzick, C Ryan, B Kodal, P Hinderlie, KLM Boylan, APN Skubitz, JS Miller, MA Geller
    Gynecol. Oncol., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. NK cells are activated and primed for skin-homing during acute dengue virus infection in humans
    Authors: CL Zimmer, M Cornillet, C Solà-Riera, KW Cheung, MA Ivarsson, MQ Lim, N Marquardt, YS Leo, DC Lye, J Klingström, PA MacAry, HG Ljunggren, L Rivino, NK Björkström
    Nat Commun, 2019;10(1):3897.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Early and late changes in natural killer cells in response to ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment
    Authors: L Golden-Mas, RH McMahan, MS Kriss, AL Kilgore, L Cheng, RJ Dran, A Wieland, HR Rosen
    Hepatol Commun, 2018;2(4):364-375.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Adaptive Reconfiguration of Natural Killer Cells in HIV-1 Infection
    Authors: D Peppa, I Pedroza-Pa, P Pellegrino, I Williams, MK Maini, P Borrow
    Front Immunol, 2018;9(0):474.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Metal-isotope-tagged monoclonal antibodies for high-dimensional mass cytometry
    Authors: G Han, MH Spitzer, SC Bendall, WJ Fantl, GP Nolan
    Nat Protoc, 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Immune activation in prolonged cART-suppressed HIV patients is comparable to that of healthy controls
    Authors: L van den Dr, MAA Claassen, ZMA Groothuism, E van Gorp, A Boonstra
    Virology, 2017;509(0):133-139.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Inhibition of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 Reduces Human and Mouse T-Cell Interleukin-17 and IFN? Production and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Induced in Mice
    Authors: S Dishon, SJ Cohen, IR Cohen, G Nussbaum
    Front Immunol, 2017;8(0):615.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. CXCR3 Blockade Inhibits T Cell Migration into the Skin and Prevents Development of Alopecia Areata
    J Immunol, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Type I IFNs and IL-18 regulate the antiviral response of primary human gammadelta T cells against dendritic cells infected with Dengue virus.
    Authors: Tsai C, Liong K, Gunalan M, Li N, Lim D, Fisher D, Macary P, Leo Y, Wong S, Puan K, Wong S
    J Immunol, 2015;194(8):3890-900.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Human natural killer cell microRNA: differential expression of MIR181A1B1 and MIR181A2B2 genes encoding identical mature microRNAs.
    Authors: Presnell S, Al-Attar A, Cichocki F, Miller J, Lutz C
    Genes Immun, 2015;16(1):89-98.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. IFN-lambda-mediated IL-12 production in macrophages induces IFN-gamma production in human NK cells.
    Authors: de Groen R, Boltjes A, Hou J, Liu B, McPhee F, Friborg J, Janssen H, Boonstra A
    Eur J Immunol, 2015;45(1):250-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. The IL18RAP region disease polymorphism decreases IL-18RAP/IL-18R1/IL-1R1 expression and signaling through innate receptor-initiated pathways.
    Authors: Hedl M, Zheng S, Abraham C
    J Immunol, 2014;192(12):5924-32.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  17. The role of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.
    Authors: Sun M, Yang P, DU L, Yang Y, Ye J
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e93214.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. Flow cytometric detection of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular cytokine expression in peripheral blood subpopulations from patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
    Authors: Mavropoulos A, Bogdanos D, Liaskos C, Orfanidou T, Simopoulou T, Zafiriou E, Sakkas L, Rigopoulou E
    J Immunol Res, 2014;2014(0):671431.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. NK cells gain higher IFN-gamma competence during terminal differentiation.
    Authors: Luetke-Eversloh M, Cicek B, Siracusa F, Thom J, Hamann A, Frischbutter S, Baumgrass R, Chang H, Thiel A, Dong J, Romagnani C
    Eur J Immunol, 2014;44(7):2074-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  20. A polysaccharide virulence factor from Aspergillus fumigatus elicits anti-inflammatory effects through induction of Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.
    Authors: Gresnigt M, Bozza S, Becker K, Joosten L, Abdollahi-Roodsaz S, van der Berg W, Dinarello C, Netea M, Fontaine T, De Luca A, Moretti S, Romani L, Latge J, van de Veerdonk F
    PLoS Pathog, 2014;10(3):e1003936.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  21. Leptin enhances the secretion of interleukin (IL)-18, but not IL-1beta, from human monocytes via activation of caspase-1.
    Authors: Jitprasertwong P, Jaedicke K, Nile C, Preshaw P, Taylor J
    Cytokine, 2013;65(2):222-30.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: ELISA Developmet
  22. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  23. Cytotoxicity of CD56(bright) NK cells towards autologous activated CD4+ T cells is mediated through NKG2D, LFA-1 and TRAIL and dampened via CD94/NKG2A.
    Authors: Nielsen N, Odum N, Urso B, Lanier LL, Spee P
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e31959.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  24. Analysis of CD16+CD56dim NK cells from CLL patients: evidence supporting a therapeutic strategy with optimized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.
    Authors: Le Garff-Tavernier M, Decocq J, de Romeuf C, Parizot C, Dutertre CA, Chapiro E, Davi F, Debre P, Prost JF, Teillaud JL, Merle-Beral H, Vieillard V
    Leukemia, 2011;25(1):101-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  25. IL-18 mediates proapoptotic signaling in renal tubular cells through a Fas ligand-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Zhang H, Hile KL, Asanuma H
    Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 2011;301(1):F171-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  26. Systematic cytokine receptor profiling reveals GM-CSF as a novel TLR-independent activator of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells.
    Authors: Ghirelli C, Zollinger R, Soumelis V
    Blood, 2010;115(24):5037-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  27. NK cell terminal differentiation: correlated stepwise decrease of NKG2A and acquisition of KIRs.
    Authors: Beziat V, Descours B, Parizot C, Debre P, Vieillard V
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(8):e11966.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  28. CD94 surface density identifies a functional intermediary between the CD56bright and CD56dim human NK-cell subsets.
    Authors: Yu J, Mao HC, Wei M, Hughes T, Zhang J, Park IK, Liu S, McClory S, Marcucci G, Trotta R, Caligiuri MA
    Blood, 2010;115(2):274-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  29. Fully functional NK cells after unrelated cord blood transplantation.
    Authors: Beziat V, Nguyen S, Lapusan S, Hervier B, Dhedin N, Bories D, Uzunov M, Boudifa A, Trebeden-Negre H, Norol F, Marjanovic Z, Marie JP, Vernant JP, Debre P, Rio B, Vieillard V
    Leukemia, 2009;23(4):721-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  30. Interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma are produced concomitantly by human coronary artery-infiltrating T cells and act synergistically on vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Eid RE, Rao DA, Zhou J, Lo SF, Ranjbaran H, Gallo A, Sokol SI, Pfau S, Pober JS, Tellides G
    Circulation, 2009;119(10):1424-32.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  31. CD27 defines phenotypically and functionally different human NK cell subsets.
    Authors: Vossen MT, Matmati M, Hertoghs KM, Baars PA, Gent MR, Leclercq G, Hamann J, Kuijpers TW, van Lier RA
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(6):3739-45.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  32. Japanese Encephalitis Virus infection induces IL-18 and IL-1beta in microglia and astrocytes: correlation with in vitro cytokine responsiveness of glial cells and subsequent neuronal death.
    Authors: Das S, Mishra MK, Ghosh J, Basu A
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2008;195(1):60-72.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  33. Effect of serum content and diluent selection on assay sensitivity and signal intensity in multiplex bead-based immunoassays.
    Authors: Pfleger C, Schloot N, ter Veld F
    J. Immunol. Methods, 2007;329(1):214-8.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  34. Activating and inhibitory receptors on synovial fluid natural killer cells of arthritis patients: role of CD94/NKG2A in control of cytokine secretion.
    Authors: de Matos CT, Berg L, Michaelsson J, Fellander-Tsai L, Karre K, Soderstrom K
    Immunology, 2007;122(2):291-301.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  35. Expression and role of CCR6/CCL20 chemokine axis in pulmonary sarcoidosis.
    Authors: Facco M, Baesso I, Miorin M, Bortoli M, Cabrelle A, Boscaro E, Gurrieri C, Trentin L, Zambello R, Calabrese F, Cassatella MA, Semenzato G, Agostini C
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2007;82(4):946-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  36. Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes keep TNF alpha levels low by cell uptake and feedback inhibition of transcription.
    Authors: Ebert EC, Mehta V
    Cell. Immunol., 2006;241(1):7-13.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  37. IL-17 markedly up-regulates beta-defensin-2 expression in human airway epithelium via JAK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
    Authors: Kao CY, Chen Y, Thai P, Wachi S, Huang F, Kim C, Harper RW, Wu R
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(5):3482-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  38. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in rheumatoid synovial tissue and regulation by proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 via interferon-gamma.
    Authors: Radstake TR, Roelofs MF, Jenniskens YM, van Riel PL, Barrera P
    Arthritis Rheum., 2004;50(12):3856-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  39. In human B cells, IL-12 triggers a cascade of molecular events similar to Th1 commitment.
    Authors: Durali D, de Goer de Herve MG, Giron-Michel J, Azzarone B, Delfraissy JF, Taoufik Y
    Blood, 2003;102(12):4084-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

FAQs

  1. What is the difference between the two versions of Recombinant Human IL-18, Catalog # 9124-IL and Catalog # B001-5?

    • Catalog # 9124-IL is manufactured by R&D Systems, while Catalog # B001-5 is manufactured by MBL.  Catalog # 9124-IL is lyophilized powder whereas Catalog # B001-5 is supplied in solution (PBS with BSA and sucrose). Activity of the two proteins is measured in similar cell-based assays; please consult the respective product-specific pages for assay details.  Catalog # 9124-IL is competitively priced and has higher purity and lower endotoxin than Catalog # B001-5.

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