Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 beta 1 Protein, CF Summary
|Human Integrin alpha 6
Accession # NP_000201
|Human Integrin beta 1
Accession # P05556
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 400 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Integrin alpha 6 beta 1
Integrin alpha 6 beta 1, also called platelet glycoprotein GPIc-IIa, is a laminin binding integrin that is expressed on T cells, monocytes, endothelial cells, stem cells, and platelets (1-9). The non-covalent heterodimer is composed of ~150 kDa alpha 6/CD49f and 130 kDa beta 1/CD29 type I transmembrane glycoprotein subunits (2). While alpha 6 pairs only with beta 1 or beta 4, twelve integrins share the beta 1 subunit (1-5). The alpha 6 subunit is cleaved into extracellular heavy and transmembrane light chains (3). Alternative splicing in the human alpha 6 extracellular domain (ECD) at amino acid (aa) 216 creates X1 (ubiquitous), X2 and X1X2 isoforms, while splicing at a mouse or human cytoplasmic site creates A and B isoforms (10, 11). These forms do not appear to alter the binding specificity (4, 10, 11). The beta 1 ECD contains a vWFA domain, which participates in binding. Each subunit then has a transmembrane sequence and a short cytoplasmic tail. The dimer is folded when it is least active. Divalent cations and intracellular (inside-out) signaling convert it to its most active, extended and open conformation (1, 2). The human alpha 6 (X1) heavy chain shares 94‑95% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and canine alpha 6, and the human beta 1 ECD shares 92‑96% aa sequence identity with rat, bovine, mouse, and feline beta 1. alpha 6 beta 1 shows broad specificity for adhesion to laminin isoforms (4, 10). Its expression on human and mouse pluripotent stem cells is important for attachment, expansion, and self‑renewal on LN‑511 (laminin alpha 5 beta 1 gamma 1) (6, 7). The secreted protein Netrin-4 and the laminin gamma 1 subunit form an adhesion‑activating complex with alpha 6 beta 1 on mouse neural stem cells and human lymphatic endothelial cells that promotes lymphangiogenesis (8, 9). alpha 6 beta 1 up‑regulation on cancers such as prostate, glioma, and hepatoma is reported to enhance tumorigenicity, motility, invasion and metastasis (12‑14). alpha 6 beta 1 cleavage via uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) facilitates tumorigenicity in prostate cancers, and interaction of hepatoma alpha 6 beta 1 with EMMPRIN/CD147 may also enhance tumorigenicity by inducing uPA and other metalloproteinases (12, 13).
- Takada, Y. et al. (2007) Genome Biol. 8:215.
- Luo, B-H. et al. (2007) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 25:619.
- Tamura, R.N. et al. (1990) J. Cell Biol. 111:1593.
- Nishiuchi, R. et al. (2006) Matrix Biol. 25:189.
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- Rodin, S. et al. (2010) Nat. Biotech. 28:611.
- Domogatskaya A. et al. (2008) Stem Cells 26:2800.
- Staquicini, F.I. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:2903.
- Larrieu-Lahargue, F. et al. (2011) Circ. Res. 109:770.
- Delwel, G. O. et al. (1995) Cell Adhes. Commun. 3:143.
- Hogervorst, F. et al. (1993) J. Cell Biol. 121:179.
- Sroka, I.C. et al. (2011) Mol. Cancer Res. 9:1319.
- Dai, J.Y. et al. (2009) BMC Cancer 9:337.
- Delamarre, E. et al. (2009) Am. J. Pathol. 175:844.
Citations for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 beta 1 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Enteric Species F Human Adenoviruses use Laminin-Binding Integrins as Co-Receptors for Infection of Ht-29 Cells
Authors: A Rajan, BD Persson, L Frängsmyr, A Olofsson, L Sandblad, J Heino, Y Takada, AP Mould, LM Schnapp, J Gall, N Arnberg
Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):10019.
Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
LGALS3BP, lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein, promotes oncogenic cellular events impeded by antibody intervention.
Authors: Stampolidis P, Ullrich A, Iacobelli S
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Monoclonal antibodies to human laminin alpha4 chain globular domain inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and binding of alpha6beta1 integrin and MCAM to alpha4-laminins.
Authors: Ishikawa T, Wondimu Z, Oikawa Y, Ingerpuu S, Virtanen I, Patarroyo M
Matrix Biol, 2014;36(0):5-14.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
What is the amino acid sequence of the acidic and basic tails?
Acidic and basic tails are added to the protein to help facilitate optimal activity. While we generally include sequence information on the product datasheet, the sequences of these tails are considered confidential information.
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