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Microglia Activation

Microglia function as the brain’s immune defense. In the normal, healthy central nervous system, microglia are typically in a quiescent state by control mechanisms in the local environment. Following exposure to infection or insults, microglia are activated. Microglia activation is a complex process that is not fully understood. It requires both the removal of inhibitory neuronal signals, as well as activation of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Microglia express a variety of PRRs, including toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RAGE, which allow microglia to recognize endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Microglia also express many ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, including several purinergic and glutamate receptors, that allow microglia to recognize end products of neural injury. R&D Systems offers a range of research tools needed for the investigation of microglia activation.