Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 Protein 302-B2-002: R&D Systems

Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 Protein

(40 citations)
(1 Review)
  
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025-0.25 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived Ala303-Ser414
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala303
  • Structure / Form
    Disulfide-linked homodimer
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    12.7 kDa (monomer)
  • SDS-PAGE

    12 kDa, reducing conditions
    24 kDa, non-reducing conditions

Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
302-B2
 
302-B2/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute 2 µg vial at 5 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl. Reconstitute 10 µg or larger vials at 100 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 (Catalog # 302-B2) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced cell proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025-0.25 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Background: TGF-beta 2

TGF-beta 2 (transforming growth factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1-7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1-4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 2, mice with targeted deletion show defects in development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems (2). Human TGF-beta 2 cDNA encodes a 414 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal peptide and a 395 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 232 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 2 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 2 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8-10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF-beta 2 shows 100% aa identity with porcine, canine, equine and bovine TGF-beta 2, and 97% aa identity with mouse and rat TGF-beta 2. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta  RIII) and a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta  RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1. The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

  • References:
    1. Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
    2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein, 2000, Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
    3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
    4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
    5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
    6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
    7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
    8. deMartin, R. et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:3673.
    9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
    10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
    11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
    12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor beta 2
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7042 (Human); 21808 (Mouse); 397084 (Porcine)
  • Alternate Names:
    BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor; cetermin; Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor; G-TSF; MGC116892; polyergin; TGFB2; TGFbeta 2; TGF-beta 2; TGF-beta2; TGF-beta-2; transforming growth factor beta-2; transforming growth factor, beta 2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

40 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Filter your results:

Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Regulates MicroRNA 21 Expression to Activate TGF-? Signaling in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Enhance Osteoblast Differentiation
    Authors: N Selvamurug, Z He, D Rifkin, B Dabovic, NC Partridge
    Stem Cells Int, 2017;2017(0):2450327.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Differential regulation of CD103 (�E integrin) expression in human dendritic cells by retinoic acid and Toll-like receptor ligands
    Authors: MM Roe, S Swain, TA Sebrell, MA Sewell, MM Collins, BA Perrino, PD Smith, LE Smythies, D Bimczok
    J. Leukoc. Biol, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. TGF-? induces phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog: implications for fibrosis of the trabecular meshwork tissue in glaucoma
    Authors: N Tellios, JC Belrose, AC Tokarewicz, C Hutnik, H Liu, A Leask, M Motolko, M Iijima, SK Parapuram
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):812.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Filtration Bleb-Maintaining Effects of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA)
    Authors: A Futakuchi, T Inoue, T Fujimoto, U Kuroda, M Inoue-Moch, E Takahashi, S Ohira, H Tanihara
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2017;58(4):2421-2429.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Cutting Edge: ERK1 Mediates the Autocrine Positive Feedback Loop of TGF-? and Furin in Glioma-Initiating Cells
    Authors: E Ventura, M Weller, I Burghardt
    J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Hierarchical patterning modes orchestrate hair follicle morphogenesis
    Authors: JD Glover, KL Wells, F Matthäus, KJ Painter, W Ho, J Riddell, JA Johansson, MJ Ford, CAB Jahoda, V Klika, RL Mort, DJ Headon
    PLoS Biol., 2017;15(7):e2002117.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: Bioassay
  7. K+/Cl- cotransporter KCC2 membrane trafficking and functionality is regulated by transforming growth factor beta 2
    J Cell Sci, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. A Novel High-Throughput 3D Screening System for EMT Inhibitors: A Pilot Screening Discovered the EMT Inhibitory Activity of CDK2 Inhibitor SU9516
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0162394.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Transient RUNX1 Expression during Early Mesendodermal Differentiation of�hESCs Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition through TGFB2 Signaling
    Stem Cell Reports, 2016;7(5):884-896.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. TGF?2-induced outflow alterations in a bioengineered trabecular meshwork are offset by a rho-associated kinase inhibitor
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):38319.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. Inhibition of T-cell activation by retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Sugita S, Kamao H, Iwasaki Y, Okamoto S, Hashiguchi T, Iseki K, Hayashi N, Mandai M, Takahashi M
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2015;56(2):1051-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Reciprocal cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment promotes oncolytic virus activity.
    Authors: Ilkow C, Marguerie M, Batenchuk C, Mayer J, Ben Neriah D, Cousineau S, Falls T, Jennings V, Boileau M, Bellamy D, Bastin D, de Souza C, Alkayyal A, Zhang J, Le Boeuf F, Arulanandam R, Stubbert L, Sampath P, Thorne S, Paramanthan P, Chatterjee A, Strieter R, Burdick M, Addison C, Stojdl D, Atkins H, Auer R, Diallo J, Lichty B, Bell J
    Nat Med, 2015;21(5):530-6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Canonical wnt signaling regulates extracellular matrix expression in the trabecular meshwork.
    Authors: Villarreal G, Chatterjee A, Oh S, Oh D, Kang M, Rhee D
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2015;55(11):7433-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Fibroblast-myofibroblast transition is differentially regulated by bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children.
    Authors: Reeves S, Kolstad T, Lien T, Herrington-Shaner S, Debley J
    Respir Res, 2015;16(1):21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Inhibition by female sex hormones of collagen gel contraction mediated by retinal pigment epithelial cells.
    Authors: Kimura K, Orita T, Fujitsu Y, Liu Y, Wakuta M, Morishige N, Suzuki K, Sonoda K
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014;55(4):2621-30.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.
    Authors: Jakobsen R, Ostrup E, Zhang X, Mikkelsen T, Brinchmann J
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(5):e96615.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  17. Pharmacological regulation of SPARC by lovastatin in human trabecular meshwork cells.
    Authors: Villarreal G, Chatterjee A, Oh S, Oh D, Rhee D
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014;55(3):1657-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Osteopontin is induced by TGF-beta2 and regulates metabolic cell activity in cultured human optic nerve head astrocytes.
    Authors: Neumann C, Garreis F, Paulsen F, Hammer C, Birke M, Scholz M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e92762.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  19. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.
    Authors: Gerhart J, Greenbaum M, Scheinfeld V, Fitzgerald P, Crawford M, Bravo-Nuevo A, Pitts M, George-Weinstein M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e95262.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: Bioassay
  20. Canine epidermal neural crest stem cells: characterization and potential as therapy candidate for a large animal model of spinal cord injury.
    Authors: Gericota B, Anderson J, Mitchell G, Borjesson D, Sturges B, Nolta J, Sieber-Blum M
    Stem Cells Transl Med, 2014;3(3):334-45.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Endotoxin induces fibrosis in vascular endothelial cells through a mechanism dependent on transient receptor protein melastatin 7 activity.
    Authors: Echeverria C, Montorfano I, Hermosilla T, Armisen R, Velasquez L, Cabello-Verrugio C, Varela D, Simon F
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e94146.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  22. miR-21 represses Pdcd4 during cardiac valvulogenesis.
    Authors: Kolpa, Heather, Peal, David S, Lynch, Stacey N, Giokas, Andrea C, Ghatak, Shibnath, Misra, Suniti, Norris, Russell, Macrae, Calum A, Markwald, Roger R, Ellinor, Patrick, Bischoff, Joyce, Milan, David J
    Development, 2013;140(10):2172-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  23. MicroRNA-mediated epigenetic silencing of sirtuin1 contributes to impaired angiogenic responses.
    Authors: Volkmann I, Kumarswamy R, Pfaff N, Fiedler J, Dangwal S, Holzmann A, Batkai S, Geffers R, Lother A, Hein L, Thum T
    Circ Res, 2013;113(8):997-1003.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  24. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  25. TGFbeta signalling plays an important role in IL4-induced alternative activation of microglia.
    J Neuroinflammation, 2012;9(0):210.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  26. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates basal transcriptional regulatory machinery to control cell proliferation and differentiation in cranial neural crest-derived osteoprogenitor cells.
    Authors: Iwata J, Hosokawa R, Sanchez-Lara PA, Urata M, Slavkin H, Chai Y
    J. Biol. Chem., 2011;285(0):4975-82.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  27. An autocrine TGF-beta/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network regulates establishment and maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    Authors: Gregory PA, Bracken CP, Smith E, Bert AG, Wright JA, Roslan S, Morris M, Wyatt L, Farshid G, Lim YY, Lindeman GJ, Shannon MF, Drew PA, Khew-Goodall Y, Goodall GJ
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2011;22(10):1686-98.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  28. Thrombospondin 1 inhibits inflammatory lymphangiogenesis by CD36 ligation on monocytes.
    Authors: Cursiefen C, Maruyama K, Bock F, Saban D, Sadrai Z, Lawler J, Dana R, Masli S
    J. Exp. Med., 2011;208(5):1083-92.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  29. Angiopoietin-like 7 secretion is induced by glaucoma stimuli and its concentration is elevated in glaucomatous aqueous humor.
    Authors: Kuchtey J, Kallberg ME, Gelatt KN, Rinkoski T, Komaromy AM, Kuchtey RW
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(8):3438-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  30. Activation of transforming growth factor-beta by the integrin alphavbeta8 delays epithelial wound closure.
    Authors: Neurohr C, Nishimura SL, Sheppard D
    Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2006;35(2):252-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  31. Identification of astrocyte-expressed factors that modulate neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation.
    Authors: Barkho BZ, Song H, Aimone JB
    Stem Cells Dev., 2006;15(3):407-21.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  32. Retinal neurons regulate proliferation of postnatal progenitors and Muller glia in the rat retina via TGF beta signaling.
    Authors: Close JL, Gumuscu B, Reh TA
    Development, 2005;132(13):3015-26.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  33. Expression of PDGF and their receptors in human retinal pigment epithelial cells and fibroblasts: regulation by TGF-beta.
    Authors: Nagineni CN, Kutty V, Detrick B, Hooks JJ
    J. Cell. Physiol., 2005;203(1):35-43.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  34. Interferon-gamma inhibits transforming growth factor-beta production in human airway epithelial cells by targeting Smads.
    Authors: Wen FQ, Liu X, Kobayashi T, Abe S, Fang Q, Kohyama T, Ertl R, Terasaki Y, Manouilova L, Rennard SI
    Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2004;30(6):816-22.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  35. Differential trafficking of transforming growth factor-beta receptors and ligand in polarized epithelial cells.
    Authors: Murphy SJ, Dore JJ, Edens M, Coffey RJ, Barnard JA, Mitchell H, Wilkes M, Leof EB
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2004;15(6):2853-62.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  36. Smad3 is required for dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium following retinal detachment in mice.
    Authors: Saika S, Kono-Saika S, Tanaka T, Yamanaka O, Ohnishi Y, Sato M, Muragaki Y, Ooshima A, Yoo J, Flanders KC, Roberts AB
    Lab. Invest., 2004;84(10):1245-58.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  37. Th2 cytokine regulation of type I collagen gel contraction mediated by human lung mesenchymal cells.
    Authors: Liu X, Kohyama T, Wang H, Zhu YK, Wen FQ, Kim HJ, Romberger DJ, Rennard SI
    Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2002;282(5):L1049-56.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  38. TGF-beta 2 attenuates the injury-induced death of mature motoneurons.
    Authors: Jiang Y, Zhang M, Koishi K, McLennan IS
    J. Neurosci. Res., 2000;62(6):809-13.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  39. Isoform specificity of commercially-available anti-TGF-beta antibodies.
    Authors: Mozes MM, Hodics T, Kopp JB
    J. Immunol. Methods, 1999;225(1):87-93.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: WB Ctrl
  40. TGFbeta2-mediated production of hyaluronan is important for the induction of epicardial cell differentiation and invasion.
    Authors: Craig EA, Craig E, Austin A, Austin AF, Vaillancourt RR, Vaillancourt R, Barnett JV, Camenisch T, Camenisch TD
    Exp Cell Res, 0;316(20):3397-405.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
Expand to show all 40 Citations
Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 review)

Have you used Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 Protein?

Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.

Read what people are saying who have used Recombinant Human TGF-beta 2 Protein.

We have 1 review tested in 1 application: In vitro bioactivity in cell culture.
Filter by Ratings
Excellent
(1)
All Ratings
Filter by Applications
In vitro bioactivity in cell culture
(1)
All Applications
Filter by Species
All Species

Images Ratings Applications Species Reviewed By Date Details
  Excellent
 In vitro bioactivity in cell culture Anonymous 05/17/2016
Show

Summary

ApplicationIn vitro bioactivity in cell culture

Order Details

  • Formulations

Contact Information

Calculators

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷
R&D Systems Guarantee

Feedback

Customer Information