Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 Protein Bioactivity
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Product Details
Citations (12)
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Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by the ability of the immobilized protein to support the adhesion of D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.6-3 μg/mL.
E. coli-derived mouse Galectin-9 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
36.4 kDa
36 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MOPS, NaCl, EDTA, DTT and Trehalose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile, deionized water. 
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Scientific Data

Bioactivity Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Immobilized Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 (Catalog # 3535-GA) supports the adhesion of D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.6-3 μg/mL.

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Background: Galectin-9

Galectins comprise a family of multifunctional carbohydrate-binding proteins with specificity for N-acetyl-lactosamine-containing glycoproteins. At least 14 mammalian Galectins share structural similarities in their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD), forming three groups: a prototype group (one CRD), a
tandem‑repeat group (two CRDs), and a chimeric group (one CRD, unique N-terminus) (1, 2). Full length Galectin-9 is a widely expressed 39 kDa tandem‑repeat group Galectin that contains two CRDs connected by a linker region (3). Alternate splicing generates an extended, small intestine-specific isoform with a 31 amino acid insertion in the linker region (3). The standard (or short) isoform of mouse Galectin-9 is orthologous to human galectin-9, which is also known as Ecalectin (4). This isoform shares 70% and 85% aa sequence identity with the corresponding regions of human and rat Galectin-9, respectively. Galectin-9 exhibits a wide range of activities including eosinophil chemoattraction (5-7). This activity is destroyed by thrombin-mediated cleavage within the linker region of the long isoform, although the human Ecalectin isoform is resistant to thrombin (8). Galectin-9 binds to carbohydrate moieties of IgE, thereby preventing immune complex formation, mast cell degranulation, and asthmatic and cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions (9). Independent of its lectin properties, Galectin-9 induces the maturation of dendritic cells which promote Th1 polarization (10). Galectin-9 induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3 (11, 12). Its interaction with TIM-3 inhibits Th1 cell and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses, while also promoting regulatory T cell differentiation and activity (12, 13). Conversely, Galectin-9 is also reported to bind to a non-TIM3 receptor on both Th1 and Th2 cells, promoting both apoptosis and cytokine secretion, suggesting multiple receptors on T helper cells (14). Galectin-9 suppresses tumor cell metastasis by interfering with the associations between hyaluronic acid and CD44 and between VCAM-1 and Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (15). Galectin-9, also known as the UAT or urate transporter, can also be expressed as an integral membrane protein in kidney that mediates the cellular efflux of urate (16).

  1. Zhu, C. et al. (2011) Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 350:1.
  2. Elola, M.T. et al. (2007) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 64:1679.
  3. Wada, J. and Y.S. Kanwar (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:6078.
  4. Matsushita, N. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8355.
  5. Matsumoto, R. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:1961.
  6. Chabot, S. et al. (2002) Glycobiology 12:111.
  7. Sato, M. et al. (2002) Glycobiology 12:191.
  8. Nishi, N. et al. (2006) Glycobiology 16:15C.
  9. Niki, T. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:32344.
  10. Dai, S.-Y. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175:2974.
  11. Seki, M. et al. (2007) Arthritis Rheum. 56:3968.
  12. Zhu, C. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
  13. Sehrawat, S. et al. (2010) PloS Pathogens 6:e1000882.
  14. Su, E.W. et al. (2011) Glycobiology 21:1258.
  15. Nobumoto, A. et al. (2008) Glycobiology 18:735.
  16. Leal-Pinto, E. et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283:F150.
Entrez Gene IDs
3965 (Human); 16859 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Ecalectin; GAL9; gal-9; galectin 9; Galectin9; Galectin-9; HUAT; lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9; LGALS9; LGALS9A; MGC117375; MGC125973; MGC125974; Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21; urate transporter/channel protein

Citations for Recombinant Mouse Galectin-9 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

12 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Effect of exogenous galectin-9, a natural TIM-3 ligand, on the severity of TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis in mice
    Authors: H Xiong, G Xue, Y Zhang, S Wu, Q Zhao, R Zhao, N Zhou, Y Xie
    International immunopharmacology, 2023;115(0):109645.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  2. Inhibition of melanoma cell-intrinsic Tim-3 stimulates MAPK-dependent tumorigenesis
    Authors: T Schatton, Y Itoh, C Martins, E Rasbach, P Singh, M Silva, KN Mucciarone, MV Heppt, J Geddes-Swe, K Stewart, A Brandenbur, J Liang, CJ Dimitroff, MC Mihm, J Landsberg, C Schlapbach, CG Lian, GF Murphy, TS Kupper, MR Ramsey, SR Barthel
    Cancer Research, 2022;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cell
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Galectin-9 regulates the threshold of B cell activation and autoimmunity
    Authors: LK Smith, K Fawaz, B Treanor
    Elife, 2021;10(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Lumenal Galectin-9-Lamp2 interaction regulates lysosome and autophagy to prevent pathogenesis in the intestine and pancreas
    Authors: JN Sudhakar, HH Lu, HY Chiang, CS Suen, MJ Hwang, SY Wu, CN Shen, YM Chang, FA Li, FT Liu, JW Shui
    Nat Commun, 2020;11(1):4286.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Organoid, Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture
  5. Possible therapeutic applicability of galectin-9 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    Authors: R Nakajima, T Miyagaki, H Kamijo, T Oka, N Shishido-T, H Suga, M Sugaya, S Sato
    J. Dermatol. Sci., 2019;96(3):134-142.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  6. Galectin-9 is Critical for Mucosal Adaptive Immunity through the TH17-IgA Axis
    Authors: CC Liang, CS Li, IC Weng, HY Chen, HH Lu, CC Huang, FT Liu
    Am. J. Pathol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  7. Dietary, nondigestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V suppress allergic inflammation in intestine via targeting dendritic cell maturation
    Authors: S de Kivit, AI Kostadinov, J Kerperien, ME Morgan, VA Muruzabal, GA Hofman, LMJ Knippels, AD Kraneveld, J Garssen, LEM Willemsen
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance
    Authors: D Daley, VR Mani, N Mohan, N Akkad, A Ochi, DW Heindel, KB Lee, CP Zambirinis, GSB Pandian, S Savadkar, A Torres-Her, S Nayak, D Wang, M Hundeyin, B Diskin, B Aykut, G Werba, RM Barilla, R Rodriguez, S Chang, L Gardner, LK Mahal, B Ueberheide, G Miller
    Nat. Med., 2017;23(5):556-567.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Alarmin function of galectin-9 in murine respiratory tularemia.
    Authors: Steichen A, Simonson T, Salmon S, Metzger D, Mishra B, Sharma J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0123573.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations.
    Authors: Ungerer C, Quade-Lyssy P, Radeke H, Henschler R, Konigs C, Kohl U, Seifried E, Schuttrumpf J
    Stem Cells Dev, 2014;23(7):755-66.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  11. Astrocyte galectin-9 potentiates microglial TNF secretion.
    Authors: Steelman, Andrew J, Li, Jianrong
    J Neuroinflammation, 2014;11(0):144.
  12. TIM-3 does not act as a receptor for galectin-9.
    Authors: Leitner, Judith, Rieger, Armin, Pickl, Winfried, Zlabinger, Gerhard, Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharin, Steinberger, Peter
    PLoS Pathog, 2013;9(3):e1003253.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay


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