Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein

(30 citations)
(1 Review)
  
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using N1186 human T cells. Parrish-Novak, J. et al. (2000) Nature 408:57. The ED50 for this effect is 4-30 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Pro25-Ser146, with and without an N-terminal Met
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Pro25 & Met
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    14.4 kDa
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
594-ML
 
594-ML/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Mouse IL-21 (Catalog # 594‑ML) stimulates cell proliferation in the N1186 human T cell line. The ED50 is 4‑30 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse IL-21 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 15 kDa.
Background: IL-21

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle cytokine in the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit.  gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co‑stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL‑21/IL‑21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The mouse IL‑21 precursor contains a predicted 17 amino acid (aa) signal sequence and a 129 aa mature chain. Mature mouse IL-21 shares 66%, 59%, 58%, and 88% aa sequence identity with mature canine, human, rabbit, and rat IL-21, respectively.

  • References:
    1. Leonard, W.J. et al. (2008) J. Leukoc. Biol. 84:348.
    2. Parrish-Novak, et al. (2000) Nature 408:57.
    3. Coquet, J.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:2827.
    4. Vogelzang, A. et al. (2008) Immunity 29:127.
    5. Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
    6. Nurieva, R. et al. (2007) Nature 448:480.
    7. Asao, H. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1.
    8. Zotos, D. et al. (2010) J. Exp. Med. 207:365.
    9. Rankin, A.L. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:667.
    10. Jin, H. et al. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119:47.
    11. Frohlich, A. et al. (2009) Science 324:1576.
    12. Yi, J.S., et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
    13. Peluso, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:732.
    14. Bucher, C. et al. (2009) Blood 114:5375.
    15. Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
    16. Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
    17. Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.
  • Long Name:
    Interleukin 21
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    59067 (Human); 60505 (Mouse); 365769 (Rat); 442935 (Canine); 100344172 (Rabbit)
  • Alternate Names:
    IL21; IL-21; IL-21Za11interleukin-21; interleukin 21; interleukin-21 isoform
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

30 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery of fused NKG2D-IL-21 gene suppresses colon cancer growth in mice
    Authors: L Tan, S Han, S Ding, W Xiao, Y Ding, L Qian, C Wang, W Gong
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12(0):3095-3107.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  2. Egr2 and Egr3 in regulatory T cells cooperatively control systemic autoimmunity through Ltbp3-mediated TGF-?3 production
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016;113(50):E8131-E8140.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. IL-1 signaling modulates activation of STAT transcription factors to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control the TH17 cell-iTreg cell balance.
    Authors: Basu R, Whitley S, Bhaumik S, Zindl C, Schoeb T, Benveniste E, Pear W, Hatton R, Weaver C
    Nat Immunol, 2015;16(3):286-95.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on protease HTRA1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Hou Y, Lin H, Zhu L, Liu Z, Hu F, Shi J, Yang T, Shi X, Guo H, Tan X, Zhang L, Wang Q, Li Z, Zhao Y
    J Immunol, 2014;193(1):130-8.
  5. miR-20b suppresses Th17 differentiation and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by targeting RORgammat and STAT3.
    Authors: Zhu E, Wang X, Zheng B, Wang Q, Hao J, Chen S, Zhao Q, Zhao L, Wu Z, Yin Z
    J Immunol, 2014;192(12):5599-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Preclinical studies of a specific PPARgamma modulator in the control of skin inflammation.
    Authors: Mastrofrancesco A, Kovacs D, Sarra M, Bastonini E, Cardinali G, Aspite N, Camera E, Chavatte P, Desreumaux P, Monteleone G, Picardo M
    J Invest Dermatol, 2014;134(4):1001-11.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  7. A novel murine cytomegalovirus vaccine vector protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Authors: Beverley P, Ruzsics Z, Hey A, Hutchings C, Boos S, Bolinger B, Marchi E, O'Hara G, Klenerman P, Koszinowski U, Tchilian E
    J Immunol, 2014;193(5):2306-16.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  8. CSF-1 receptor-mediated differentiation of a new type of monocytic cell with B cell-stimulating activity: its selective dependence on IL-34.
    Authors: Yamane F, Nishikawa Y, Matsui K, Asakura M, Iwasaki E, Watanabe K, Tanimoto H, Sano H, Fujiwara Y, Stanley E, Kanayama N, Mabbott N, Magari M, Ohmori H
    J Leukoc Biol, 2014;95(1):19-31.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells.
    Authors: Yeste A, Mascanfroni I, Nadeau M, Burns E, Tukpah A, Santiago A, Wu C, Patel B, Kumar D, Quintana F
    Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3753.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.
    Authors: Hwang I, Hwang K, Park C, Harrison K, Kehrl J
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(3):e60139.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. The cytokines IL-21 and GM-CSF have opposing regulatory roles in the apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells.
    Authors: Wan C, Oh J, Li P, West E, Wong E, Andraski A, Spolski R, Yu Z, He J, Kelsall B, Leonard W
    Immunity, 2013;38(3):514-27.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. IL-21 promotes CD8+ CTL activity via the transcription factor T-bet.
    Authors: Sutherland A, Joller N, Michaud M, Liu S, Kuchroo V, Grusby M
    J Immunol, 2013;190(8):3977-84.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Regulation of innate CD8+ T-cell activation mediated by cytokines.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(25):9971-6.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) selectively promotes mouse and human IL-17-producing gammadelta cells.
    Authors: Michel M, Pang D, Haque S, Potocnik A, Pennington D, Hayday A
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(43):17549-54.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Naive and activated T cells display differential responsiveness to TL1A that affects Th17 generation, maintenance, and proliferation.
    Authors: Jones GW, Stumhofer JS, Foster T, Twohig JP, Hertzog P, Topley N, Williams AS, Hunter CA, Jenkins BJ, Wang EC, Jones SA
    FASEB J., 2011;25(1):409-19.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Determinants of Successful CD8+ T-Cell Adoptive Immunotherapy for Large Established Tumors in Mice.
    Authors: Klebanoff CA, Gattinoni L, Palmer DC, Muranski P, Ji Y, Hinrichs CS, Borman ZA, Kerkar SP, Scott CD, Finkelstein SE, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2011;17(16):5343-52.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  17. IL-21 Promotes Skin Recruitment of CD4+ Cells and Drives IFN-{gamma}-Dependent Epidermal Hyperplasia.
    Authors: Sarra M, Caruso R, Cupi ML, Monteleone I, Stolfi C, Campione E, Diluvio L, Mazzotta A, Botti E, Chimenti S, Costanzo A, MacDonald TT, Pallone F, Monteleone G
    J. Immunol., 2011;186(9):5435-42.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  18. STAT3-dependent IL-21 production from T helper cells regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell homeostasis.
    Authors: Kaplan MH, Glosson NL, Stritesky GL, Yeh N, Kinzfogl J, Rohrabaugh SL, Goswami R, Pham D, Levy DE, Brutkiewicz RR, Blum JS, Cooper S, Hangoc G, Broxmeyer HE
    Blood, 2011;117(23):6198-201.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  19. IL-21 Reduces Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions in Mouse Skin by Suppressing Mast Cell Activation or IgE Production.
    Authors: Tamagawa-Mineoka R, Kishida T, Mazda O
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2011;131(7):1513-20.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  20. The sensing of environmental stimuli by follicular dendritic cells promotes immunoglobulin A generation in the gut.
    Authors: Suzuki K, Maruya M, Kawamoto S
    Immunity, 2010;33(1):71-83.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Interleukin-1 family cytokines as mucosal vaccine adjuvants for induction of protective immunity against influenza virus.
    Authors: Kayamuro H, Yoshioka Y, Abe Y, Arita S, Katayama K, Nomura T, Yoshikawa T, Kubota-Koketsu R, Ikuta K, Okamoto S, Mori Y, Kunisawa J, Kiyono H, Itoh N, Nagano K, Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y, Tsunoda S
    J. Virol., 2010;84(24):12703-12.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  22. Regulation of the IL-21 gene by the NF-kappaB transcription factor c-Rel.
    Authors: Chen G, Hardy K, Bunting K
    J. Immunol., 2010;185(4):2350-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  23. Cutting edge: IL-27 induces the transcription factor c-Maf, cytokine IL-21, and the costimulatory receptor ICOS that coordinately act together to promote differentiation of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.
    Authors: Pot C, Jin H, Awasthi A
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(2):797-801.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  24. Mouse fetal and embryonic liver cells differentiate human umbilical cord blood progenitors into CD56-negative natural killer cell precursors in the absence of interleukin-15.
    Authors: McCullar V, Oostendorp R, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Yun G, Lutz CT, Wagner JE, Miller JS
    Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(5):598-608.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  25. Blockade of the interleukin-21/interleukin-21 receptor pathway ameliorates disease in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Young DA, Hegen M, Ma HL, Whitters MJ, Albert LM, Lowe L, Senices M, Wu PW, Sibley B, Leathurby Y, Brown TP, Nickerson-Nutter C, Keith JC, Collins M
    Arthritis Rheum., 2007;56(4):1152-63.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  26. IL-21 administration into the nostril alleviates murine allergic rhinitis.
    Authors: Hiromura Y, Kishida T, Nakano H, Hama T, Imanishi J, Hisa Y, Mazda O
    J. Immunol., 2007;179(10):7157-65.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  27. Autoreactive T cells mediate NK cell degeneration in autoimmune disease.
    Authors: Liu R, Van Kaer L, La Cava A, Price M, Campagnolo DI, Collins M, Young DA, Vollmer TL, Shi FD
    J. Immunol., 2006;176(9):5247-54.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  28. Expression of interleukin-21 receptor, but not interleukin-21, in synovial fibroblasts and synovial macrophages of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Jungel A, Distler JH, Kurowska-Stolarska M, Seemayer CA, Seibl R, Forster A, Michel BA, Gay RE, Emmrich F, Gay S, Distler O
    Arthritis Rheum., 2004;50(5):1468-76.
    Application: ELISA Standard
  29. IL-21 induces tumor rejection by specific CTL and IFN-gamma-dependent CXC chemokines in syngeneic mice.
    Authors: Di Carlo E, Comes A, Orengo AM, Rosso O, Meazza R, Musiani P, Colombo MP, Ferrini S
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(3):1540-7.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: WB Ctrl
  30. IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells.
    Authors: Brady J, Hayakawa Y, Smyth MJ, Nutt SL
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(4):2048-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
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Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 review)

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Th cell differentiation Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein 594-ML
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 Th cell differentiation Anonymous 11/19/2017
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Th cell differentiation Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein 594-ML
Th cell differentiation: Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein [594-ML]

Summary

ApplicationTh cell differentiation
Reason for RatingWorked well in inducing IL-17A production in naive CD4+ T cells.

Other Experimental Details

Other Experimental DetailsNaive CD4+ T cells (CD4+CD44lowCD62L+CD25-) were cultured with 3 ng/mL TGF-b, 100 ng/mL IL-21, 10 ug/mL each of anti-IL-4 and anti-IFN-g, 1 ug/mL anti-CD23 (plate-bound) and 1 ug/mL anti-CD28 for 4 days.

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