Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
594-ML-010/CF
594-ML-025/CF
594-ML-100/CF
594-ML-01M/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
594-ML-010
594-ML-025
594-ML-100
594-ML-01M
Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein Bioactivity
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Product Details
Citations (41)
FAQs
Reviews (3)

Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to enhance IFN-gamma secretion in NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is 3-30 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived mouse IL-21 protein
Pro25-Ser146, with and without an N-terminal Met
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Pro25 & Met
Predicted Molecular Mass
14.4 kDa

Product Datasheets

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594-ML (with carrier)

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594-ML/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

594-ML

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein. *1 mg pack size (01M) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

594-ML/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS. *1 mg pack size (01M) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Scientific Data

Bioactivity Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Mouse IL-21 (Catalog # 594‑ML) enhances IFN-gamma secretion in NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cells. The ED50 is 3-30 ng/mL.

SDS-PAGE Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein SDS-PAGE View Larger

1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse IL-21 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 15 kDa.

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Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: IL-21

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle cytokine in the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit.  gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co‑stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL‑21/IL‑21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The mouse IL‑21 precursor contains a predicted 17 amino acid (aa) signal sequence and a 129 aa mature chain. Mature mouse IL-21 shares 66%, 59%, 58%, and 88% aa sequence identity with mature canine, human, rabbit, and rat IL-21, respectively.

References
  1. Leonard, W.J. et al. (2008) J. Leukoc. Biol. 84:348.
  2. Parrish-Novak, et al. (2000) Nature 408:57.
  3. Coquet, J.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:2827.
  4. Vogelzang, A. et al. (2008) Immunity 29:127.
  5. Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
  6. Nurieva, R. et al. (2007) Nature 448:480.
  7. Asao, H. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1.
  8. Zotos, D. et al. (2010) J. Exp. Med. 207:365.
  9. Rankin, A.L. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:667.
  10. Jin, H. et al. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119:47.
  11. Frohlich, A. et al. (2009) Science 324:1576.
  12. Yi, J.S., et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
  13. Peluso, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:732.
  14. Bucher, C. et al. (2009) Blood 114:5375.
  15. Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
  16. Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
  17. Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.
Long Name
Interleukin 21
Entrez Gene IDs
59067 (Human); 60505 (Mouse); 365769 (Rat); 442935 (Canine); 100344172 (Rabbit)
Alternate Names
CVID11; IL21; IL-21; IL-21Za11interleukin-21; interleukin 21; interleukin-21 isoform; Za11

Citations for Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

41 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 Synthase Controls Tfh/Th2 Communication and Limits Tfh Antitumor Effects
    Authors: R Mary, F Chalmin, T Accogli, M Bruchard, C Hibos, J Melin, C Truntzer, E Limagne, V Derangère, M Thibaudin, E Humblin, R Boidot, S Chevrier, L Arnould, C Richard, Q Klopfenste, A Bernard, Y Urade, JA Harker, L Apetoh, F Ghiringhel, F Végran
    Cancer Immunology Research, 2022;0(0):OF1-OF17.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. The concerted change in the distribution of cell cycle phases and zone composition in germinal centers is regulated by IL-21
    Authors: D Zotos, I Quast, CSN Li-Wai-Sue, CI McKenzie, MJ Robinson, A Kan, GK Smyth, PD Hodgkin, DM Tarlinton
    Nature Communications, 2021;12(1):7160.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of a Mir155 Transcriptional Reporter in Th17 Cells
    Authors: A Singh, M Dashynam, B Chim, TM Escobar, X Liu, X Hu, S Patnaik, X Xu, N Southall, J Marugan, A Jadhav, V Lazarevic, SA Muljo, M Ferrer
    Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):11498.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Adoptive transfer of type 1 regulatory T cells suppressed the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation model mice
    Authors: M Matsuda, K Doi, T Tsutsumi, M Inaba, J Hamaguchi, T Terada, R Kawata, K Kitatani, T Nabe
    J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2019;141(4):139-145.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  5. Enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocytes recruitment targeting tumor vasculatures by endoglin aptamer and IP-10 plasmid presenting liposome-based nanocarriers
    Authors: X Yang, J Zhao, S Duan, X Hou, X Li, Z Hu, Z Tang, F Mo, X Lu
    Theranostics, 2019;9(14):4066-4083.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Distinct Requirements of CHD4 during B Cell Development and Antibody Response
    Authors: WF Yen, R Sharma, M Cols, CM Lau, A Chaudhry, P Chowdhury, WT Yewdell, B Vaidyanath, A Sun, M Coffre, JN Pucella, CC Chen, M Jasin, JC Sun, AY Rudensky, SB Koralov, J Chaudhuri
    Cell Rep, 2019;27(5):1472-1486.e5.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. IL22 Inhibits Epithelial Stem Cell Expansion in an Ileal Organoid Model
    Authors: B Zwarycz, AD Gracz, KR Rivera, IA Williamson, LA Samsa, J Starmer, MA Daniele, L Salter-Cid, Q Zhao, ST Magness
    Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019;7(1):1-17.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Organoids
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Characterization and allergic role of IL-33-induced neutrophil polarization
    Authors: B Sun, L Zhu, Y Tao, HX Sun, Y Li, P Wang, Y Hou, Y Zhao, X Zhang, L Zhang, N Na, Y Zhao
    Cell. Mol. Immunol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. T Follicular Helper Cell-Germinal Center B Cell Interaction Strength Regulates Entry into Plasma Cell or Recycling Germinal Center Cell Fate
    Authors: W Ise, K Fujii, K Shiroguchi, A Ito, K Kometani, K Takeda, E Kawakami, K Yamashita, K Suzuki, T Okada, T Kurosaki
    Immunity, 2018;48(4):702-715.e4.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. REV-ERB? Regulates TH17 Cell Development and Autoimmunity
    Authors: M Amir, S Chaudhari, R Wang, S Campbell, SA Mosure, LB Chopp, Q Lu, J Shang, OB Pelletier, Y He, C Doebelin, MD Cameron, DJ Kojetin, TM Kamenecka, LA Solt
    Cell Rep, 2018;25(13):3733-3749.e8.
  11. Neddylation contributes to CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against blood-stage Plasmodium infection
    Authors: Q Cheng, J Liu, Y Pei, Y Zhang, D Zhou, W Pan, J Zhang
    PLoS Pathog., 2018;14(11):e1007440.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery of fused NKG2D-IL-21 gene suppresses colon cancer growth in mice
    Authors: L Tan, S Han, S Ding, W Xiao, Y Ding, L Qian, C Wang, W Gong
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12(0):3095-3107.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  13. IL-1? and IL-23 Promote Extrathymic Commitment of CD27(+)CD122(-) ?? T Cells to ??T17 Cells
    Authors: A Muschaweck, F Petermann, T Korn
    J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Egr2 and Egr3 in regulatory T cells cooperatively control systemic autoimmunity through Ltbp3-mediated TGF-?3 production
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016;113(50):E8131-E8140.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. IL-1 signaling modulates activation of STAT transcription factors to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control the TH17 cell-iTreg cell balance.
    Authors: Basu R, Whitley S, Bhaumik S, Zindl C, Schoeb T, Benveniste E, Pear W, Hatton R, Weaver C
    Nat Immunol, 2015;16(3):286-95.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on protease HTRA1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Hou Y, Lin H, Zhu L, Liu Z, Hu F, Shi J, Yang T, Shi X, Guo H, Tan X, Zhang L, Wang Q, Li Z, Zhao Y
    J Immunol, 2014;193(1):130-8.
  17. Preclinical studies of a specific PPARgamma modulator in the control of skin inflammation.
    Authors: Mastrofrancesco A, Kovacs D, Sarra M, Bastonini E, Cardinali G, Aspite N, Camera E, Chavatte P, Desreumaux P, Monteleone G, Picardo M
    J Invest Dermatol, 2014;134(4):1001-11.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  18. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells.
    Authors: Yeste A, Mascanfroni I, Nadeau M, Burns E, Tukpah A, Santiago A, Wu C, Patel B, Kumar D, Quintana F
    Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3753.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. miR-20b suppresses Th17 differentiation and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by targeting RORgammat and STAT3.
    Authors: Zhu E, Wang X, Zheng B, Wang Q, Hao J, Chen S, Zhao Q, Zhao L, Wu Z, Yin Z
    J Immunol, 2014;192(12):5599-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  20. A novel murine cytomegalovirus vaccine vector protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Authors: Beverley P, Ruzsics Z, Hey A, Hutchings C, Boos S, Bolinger B, Marchi E, O'Hara G, Klenerman P, Koszinowski U, Tchilian E
    J Immunol, 2014;193(5):2306-16.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  21. CSF-1 receptor-mediated differentiation of a new type of monocytic cell with B cell-stimulating activity: its selective dependence on IL-34.
    Authors: Yamane F, Nishikawa Y, Matsui K, Asakura M, Iwasaki E, Watanabe K, Tanimoto H, Sano H, Fujiwara Y, Stanley E, Kanayama N, Mabbott N, Magari M, Ohmori H
    J Leukoc Biol, 2014;95(1):19-31.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  22. The cytokines IL-21 and GM-CSF have opposing regulatory roles in the apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells.
    Authors: Wan C, Oh J, Li P, West E, Wong E, Andraski A, Spolski R, Yu Z, He J, Kelsall B, Leonard W
    Immunity, 2013;38(3):514-27.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  23. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.
    Authors: Hwang I, Hwang K, Park C, Harrison K, Kehrl J
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(3):e60139.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  24. IL-21 promotes CD8+ CTL activity via the transcription factor T-bet.
    Authors: Sutherland A, Joller N, Michaud M, Liu S, Kuchroo V, Grusby M
    J Immunol, 2013;190(8):3977-84.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  25. Regulation of innate CD8+ T-cell activation mediated by cytokines.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(25):9971-6.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  26. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) selectively promotes mouse and human IL-17-producing gammadelta cells.
    Authors: Michel M, Pang D, Haque S, Potocnik A, Pennington D, Hayday A
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(43):17549-54.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  27. Naive and activated T cells display differential responsiveness to TL1A that affects Th17 generation, maintenance, and proliferation.
    Authors: Jones GW, Stumhofer JS, Foster T, Twohig JP, Hertzog P, Topley N, Williams AS, Hunter CA, Jenkins BJ, Wang EC, Jones SA
    FASEB J., 2011;25(1):409-19.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  28. STAT3-dependent IL-21 production from T helper cells regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell homeostasis.
    Authors: Kaplan MH, Glosson NL, Stritesky GL, Yeh N, Kinzfogl J, Rohrabaugh SL, Goswami R, Pham D, Levy DE, Brutkiewicz RR, Blum JS, Cooper S, Hangoc G, Broxmeyer HE
    Blood, 2011;117(23):6198-201.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  29. IL-21 Reduces Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions in Mouse Skin by Suppressing Mast Cell Activation or IgE Production.
    Authors: Tamagawa-Mineoka R, Kishida T, Mazda O
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2011;131(7):1513-20.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  30. IL-21 Promotes Skin Recruitment of CD4+ Cells and Drives IFN-{gamma}-Dependent Epidermal Hyperplasia.
    Authors: Sarra M, Caruso R, Cupi ML, Monteleone I, Stolfi C, Campione E, Diluvio L, Mazzotta A, Botti E, Chimenti S, Costanzo A, MacDonald TT, Pallone F, Monteleone G
    J. Immunol., 2011;186(9):5435-42.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  31. Determinants of Successful CD8+ T-Cell Adoptive Immunotherapy for Large Established Tumors in Mice.
    Authors: Klebanoff CA, Gattinoni L, Palmer DC, Muranski P, Ji Y, Hinrichs CS, Borman ZA, Kerkar SP, Scott CD, Finkelstein SE, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2011;17(16):5343-52.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  32. Interleukin-1 family cytokines as mucosal vaccine adjuvants for induction of protective immunity against influenza virus.
    Authors: Kayamuro H, Yoshioka Y, Abe Y, Arita S, Katayama K, Nomura T, Yoshikawa T, Kubota-Koketsu R, Ikuta K, Okamoto S, Mori Y, Kunisawa J, Kiyono H, Itoh N, Nagano K, Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y, Tsunoda S
    J. Virol., 2010;84(24):12703-12.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  33. The sensing of environmental stimuli by follicular dendritic cells promotes immunoglobulin A generation in the gut.
    Authors: Suzuki K, Maruya M, Kawamoto S
    Immunity, 2010;33(1):71-83.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  34. Regulation of the IL-21 gene by the NF-kappaB transcription factor c-Rel.
    Authors: Chen G, Hardy K, Bunting K
    J. Immunol., 2010;185(4):2350-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  35. Cutting edge: IL-27 induces the transcription factor c-Maf, cytokine IL-21, and the costimulatory receptor ICOS that coordinately act together to promote differentiation of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.
    Authors: Pot C, Jin H, Awasthi A
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(2):797-801.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  36. Mouse fetal and embryonic liver cells differentiate human umbilical cord blood progenitors into CD56-negative natural killer cell precursors in the absence of interleukin-15.
    Authors: McCullar V, Oostendorp R, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Yun G, Lutz CT, Wagner JE, Miller JS
    Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(5):598-608.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  37. IL-21 administration into the nostril alleviates murine allergic rhinitis.
    Authors: Hiromura Y, Kishida T, Nakano H, Hama T, Imanishi J, Hisa Y, Mazda O
    J. Immunol., 2007;179(10):7157-65.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  38. Blockade of the interleukin-21/interleukin-21 receptor pathway ameliorates disease in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Young DA, Hegen M, Ma HL, Whitters MJ, Albert LM, Lowe L, Senices M, Wu PW, Sibley B, Leathurby Y, Brown TP, Nickerson-Nutter C, Keith JC, Collins M
    Arthritis Rheum., 2007;56(4):1152-63.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  39. Autoreactive T cells mediate NK cell degeneration in autoimmune disease.
    Authors: Liu R, Van Kaer L, La Cava A, Price M, Campagnolo DI, Collins M, Young DA, Vollmer TL, Shi FD
    J. Immunol., 2006;176(9):5247-54.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  40. IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells.
    Authors: Brady J, Hayakawa Y, Smyth MJ, Nutt SL
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(4):2048-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  41. IL-21 induces tumor rejection by specific CTL and IFN-gamma-dependent CXC chemokines in syngeneic mice.
    Authors: Di Carlo E, Comes A, Orengo AM, Rosso O, Meazza R, Musiani P, Colombo MP, Ferrini S
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(3):1540-7.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: Western Blot

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Reviews for Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein

Average Rating: 4.3 (Based on 3 Reviews)

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Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein
By Marina Theodorou on 05/20/2021
Application: CellProlif

Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein
By Lucia Sereni on 10/22/2020
Application: CellProlif
Reason for Rating: This cytokine has been used to expand in vitro murine B cells

Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein
By Mahesh Raundhal on 11/19/2017
Application: Th cell differentiation
Reason for Rating: Worked well in inducing IL-17A production in naive CD4+ T cells.

Naive CD4+ T cells (CD4+CD44lowCD62L+CD25-) were cultured with 3 ng/mL TGF-b, 100 ng/mL IL-21, 10 ug/mL each of anti-IL-4 and anti-IFN-g, 1 ug/mL anti-CD23 (plate-bound) and 1 ug/mL anti-CD28 for 4 days.