Recombinant Mouse Progranulin Protein, CF

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2557-PG-050
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (10)
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Recombinant Mouse Progranulin Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to enhance neurite outgrowth of E16-E18 rat embryonic cortical neurons. Able to significantly enhance neurite outgrowth when immobilized at 4-16 µg/mL on a nitrocellulose-coated microplate.
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived mouse Progranulin/PGRN protein
Thr18-Leu589, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Thr18
Predicted Molecular Mass
62.4 kDa
SDS-PAGE
80-90 kDa, reducing conditions

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2557-PG

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

2557-PG

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Progranulin/PGRN

Progranulin, also known as acrogranin, PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) and epithelin/granulin precursor, is a ubiquitously expressed, 88 kDa, secreted glycoprotein (1-3). Structurally, it belongs to none of the well-established growth factor families (4). Mouse Progranulin is 589 amino acids (aa) in length and contains a 17 aa signal sequence and a 572 aa mature region that has four potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. It has a highly repetitive organization, containing seven tandem copies of a 55-57 aa consensus motif that contains 12 conserved cysteine residues: VXCX5-6CX5CCX8CCX6CCXDX2HCCPX4CX5-6CX2 (1). Progranulin is secreted in an intact form (2, 4) or undergoes proteolysis leading to the release of multiple peptides made from the seven tandem repeats, the granulins (5-7). Mouse Progranulin shares 87% and 75% aa sequence identity with rat and human Progranulin, respectively. Progranulin is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, as well as differentiation, development, and pathological processes (4). It has been isolated as a differentially expressed gene during mesothelial differentiation (8), macrophage development (9), development synovium of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (10), sexual differentiation of the brain (11), and has also been shown to be a mediator of cartilage proliferation plus of wound response and tissue repair (4, 12-13). High levels of Progranulin expression have been found to be associated with several human cancers, and are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis in breast cancer, clear cell renal carcinoma, invasive ovarian carcinoma, glioblastoma, adipocyte teratoma, and multiple myeloma (4-5, 12, 14-20).

References
  1. Plowman, G.D. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:13073. 
  2. Zhou, J. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:10863. 
  3. Liu, Y. et al. (2007) BMC Cancer 7:22. 
  4. Xu, K. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:11347. 
  5. Davidson, B. et al. (2004) Cancer 100:2139. 
  6. Zanocco-Marani, T. et al. (1999) Cancer Res. 59:5331. 
  7. Lu, R. and G. Serrero (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97:3993. 
  8. Sun, X. et al. (2004) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 30:510. 
  9. Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:727 
  10. Justen, H.P. et al. (2000) Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Commun. 3:165.
  11. Suzuki, M. and M. Nishiahara (2002) Mol. Genet. Metab. 75:31.
  12. He, Z. et al. (2003) Nat. Med. 9:225.
  13. Zhu, J. et al. (2002) Cell 111:867.
  14. He, Z. and A. Bateman (2003) J. Mol. Med. 81:600.
  15. Bateman, A. et al. (1990) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 173:1161.
  16. Gonzalez, E.M. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:38113.
  17. Jones, M.B. et al. (2003) Gynecol. Oncol. 88:S136.
  18. Wang, W. et al. (2003) Clin. Cancer Res. 9:2221.
  19. Zhang, H. and G. Serrero (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:14202.
Entrez Gene IDs
2896 (Human); 14824 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Acrogranin; CLN11; GEP; GP88; granulin precursor; GRN; PCDGF; PEPI; PGRN; Proepithelin; Progranulin

Citations for Recombinant Mouse Progranulin Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

10 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Progranulin Preserves Autophagy Flux and Mitochondrial Function in Rat Cortical Neurons Under High Glucose Stress
    Authors: C Dedert, V Mishra, G Aggarwal, AD Nguyen, F Xu
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2022;16(0):874258.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Progranulin Improves Acute Lung Injury through Regulating the Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells and Interleukin-10 Immunomodulation to Promote Macrophage Polarization
    Authors: YQ Chen, CJ Wang, K Xie, M Lei, YS Chai, F Xu, SH Lin
    Mediators Inflamm., 2020;2020(0):9704327.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  3. Effects of progranulin on the pathological conditions in experimental myocardial infarction model
    Authors: T Sasaki, M Shimazawa, H Kanamori, Y Yamada, A Nishinaka, Y Kuse, G Suzuki, T Masuda, S Nakamura, M Hosokawa, S Minatoguch, H Hara
    Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):11842.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  4. Genetic Regulation of Neuronal Progranulin Reveals a Critical Role for the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway
    Authors: LP Elia, AR Mason, A Alijagic, S Finkbeiner
    J. Neurosci., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types:
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  5. Progranulin Decreases Susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae in Influenza and Protects against Lethal Coinfection
    Authors: X Wang, J Yuan, H Wang, N Gan, Q Zhang, B Liu, J Wang, Z Shu, L Rao, X Gou, H Zhang, Y Yin, X Zhang
    J. Immunol., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  6. Progranulin attenuates liver fibrosis by downregulating the inflammatory response
    Authors: W Yoo, J Lee, KH Noh, S Lee, D Jung, MH Kabir, D Park, C Lee, KS Kwon, JS Kim, S Kim
    Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(10):758.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Macrophage-derived granulin drives resistance to immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic pancreatic cancer
    Authors: V Quaranta, C Rainer, SR Nielsen, ML Raymant, MS Ahmed, DD Engle, A Taylor, T Murray, F Campbell, DH Palmer, DA Tuveson, A Mielgo, MC Schmid
    Cancer Res., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Progranulin Gene Therapy Improves Lysosomal Dysfunction and Microglial Pathology Associated with Frontotemporal Dementia and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
    Authors: AE Arrant, VC Onyilo, DE Unger, ED Roberson
    J. Neurosci., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Western Blot
  9. Macrophage-secreted granulin supports pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing liver fibrosis
    Authors: SR Nielsen, V Quaranta, A Linford, P Emeagi, C Rainer, A Santos, L Ireland, T Sakai, K Sakai, YS Kim, D Engle, F Campbell, D Palmer, JH Ko, DA Tuveson, E Hirsch, A Mielgo, MC Schmid
    Nat Cell Biol, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Progranulin promotes the retinal precursor cell proliferation and the photoreceptor differentiation in the mouse retina
    Authors: Y Kuse, K Tsuruma, S Sugitani, H Izawa, Y Ohno, M Shimazawa, H Hara
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):23811.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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