Recombinant Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Protein, CF Summary
The ED50 for this effect is 0.4‑2 µg/mL.
Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
Ser18-Val238, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR (Catalog # 3689-TM) inhibits anti-CD3-induced proliferation of stimulated human T cells. Human T cells cultured for 72 hours with PHA were incubated for an additional 3 days in 96 well plates coated with 500 ng/mL anti‑CD3 and Recombinant Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR. The ED50for this effect is 0.4‑2 µg/mL.
KIM-1 (Kidney-injury molecule-1; also TIM-1 and HAVCR) is a 50‑80 kDa, variably glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the TIM family of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules (1‑5). This gene family is involved in the regulation of Th1 and Th2‑cell-mediated immunity. In mouse, there are eight known TIM/KIM genes (# 1‑8) vs. only three genes in human (# 1, 3, 4) (1, 2, 5). It is unknown if the rat genome exactly parallels that of mouse. Rat KIM-1 is synthesized as a 307 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 214 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment and a 51 aa cytoplasmic domain (4). The ECD contains one V-type Ig-like domain and a mucin region characterized by multiple Thr-Ser-Pro motifs. The mucin region may undergo extensive O-linked glycosylation. The mouse KIM-1 gene is highly polymorphic and this may be reflected in rat (4, 6). In human, TIM-1 is known to circulate as a soluble form. It undergoes constitutive cleavage by an undefined MMP, releasing an 85 kDa soluble molecule (7). A similar process has now been described in rat (8). The ECD of rat KIM-1 is 50% and 81% aa identical to human and mouse KIM-1 ECD, respectively. The only two reported ligands for KIM-1 are TIM-4 and the hepatitis A virus (9, 10). However, others are believed to exist, and based on the ligand for TIM-3, one might be an S-type lectin (11). KIM-1 is found on CD4+ T cells and proximal renal tubular cells (4, 12). KIM-1 ligation induces T cell proliferation and promotes cytokine production (1, 11). In particular, it induces IL-4 production, and requires the KIM-1 cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation motif (12). Alternatively, KIM-1 activation of TIM-4 induces cell cycle arrest (13).
- Meyers, J.H. et al. (2005) Trends Mol. Med. 11:1471.
- Kuchroo, V.K. et al. (2003) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:454.
- Mariat, C. et al. (2005) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 360:1681.
- Ichimura, T. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:4135.
- Kuchroo, V.K. et al. (2006) Adv. Immunol. 91:227.
- McIntire, J.J. et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:1109.
- Bailly, V. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:39739.
- Vaidya, V.S. et al. (2006) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 290:F517.
- Feigelstock, D. et al. (1998) J. Virol. 72:6621.
- Zhu, C. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
- Meyers, J.H. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:455.
- de Souza, A.J. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:17113.
- Mesri, M. et al. (2006) Int. Immunol. 18:473.
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