Catalog Number: 1069
Alternate Names: TTx citrate
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
Biological Activity
Highly selective, reversible sodium channel blocker; citrate salt of tetrodotoxin.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in water
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
  2. The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.
    Gleitz et al.
    Neuropharmacology, 1996;35:1743
  3. Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin.
    Fed.Proc., 1972;31:1117
  4. Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues.
    Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci., 1986;479:52

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin citrate include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 34

  1. Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
    Authors: Thomsen Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  2. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R.
    Authors: Angelantonio Et al.
    PLoS One
  3. Fmrp targets or not: long, highly brain-expressed genes tend to be implicated in autism and brain disorders.
    Authors: Ouwenga and Dougherty
    Mol Autism
  4. Branch-specific dendritic Ca(2+) spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Cichon and Gan
  5. Sazetidine-A Activates and Desensitizes Native α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
    Authors: Brown and Wonnacott
  6. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  7. Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference.
    Authors: Slowik and Henderson
    J Neurosci
  8. Direct visualization of newly synthesized target proteins in situ.
    Authors: Dieck Et al.
    Nat Methods
  9. Giant ankyrin-G stabilizes somatodendritic GABAergic synapses through opposing endocytosis of GABAA receptors.
    Authors: Tseng Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  10. Assessment of TTX-s and TTX-r Action Potential Conduction along Neurites of NGF and GDNF Cultured Porcine DRG Somata.
    Authors: Jonas Et al.
    Neurochem Res
  11. A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses.
    Authors: Halff Et al.
    J Neurosci
  12. Dynamic interactions mediated by nonredundant signaling mechanisms couple circadian clock neurons.
    Authors: Evans Et al.
  13. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition.
    Authors: Bloodgood Et al.
  14. Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration.
    Authors: Reutsky-Gefen Et al.
    Nat Methods
  15. Direct retino-raphe projection alters serotonergic tone and affective behavior.
    Authors: Ren Et al.
  16. Mis-expression of the BK K(+) channel disrupts suprachiasmatic nucleus circuit rhythmicity and alters clock-controlled behavior.
    Authors: Montgomery Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
  17. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
    Authors: Mameza Et al.
    Biochim Biophys Acta
  18. Optogenetic stimulation of the corticothalamic pathway affects relay cells and GABAergic neurons differently in the mouse visual thalamus.
    Authors: Jurgens Et al.
    PLoS One
  19. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    PLoS One
  20. In vitro maturation of dopaminergic neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells: implications for transplantation.
    Authors: Watmuff Et al.
    J Neurosci
  21. Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
    Authors: Janssen Et al.
    J Neurosci
  22. Increased bursting glutamatergic neurotransmission in an auditory forebrain area of the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata) induced by auditory stimulation.
    Authors: Dagostin Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  23. 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors tonically augment synaptic currents in the nucleus tractus solitarii.
    Authors: Austgen Et al.
    PLoS One
  24. Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current.
    Authors: Vornanen Et al.
    Mar Drugs
  25. Multiple arrhythmic syndromes in a newborn, owing to a novel mutation in SCN5A.
    Authors: Calloe Et al.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol
  26. Efficient derivation of NPCs, spinal motor neurons and midbrain dopaminergic neurons from hESCs at 3% oxygen.
    Authors: Stacpoole Et al.
    Nat Protoc
  27. Regulation of glycine receptor diffusion properties and gephyrin interactions by protein kinase C.
    Authors: Specht Et al.
    EMBO J
  28. Norepinephrine causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+.
    Authors: Zemkova Et al.
  29. Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
    Authors: Austgen Et al.
    Mol Brain
  30. A calcium-activated nonselective cation conductance underlies the plateau potential in rat substantia nigra GABAergic neurons.
    Authors: Lee and Tepper
    J Neurosci
  31. New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, γ-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Kato Et al.
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Phys
  32. Dopaminergic modulation of spinal neuronal excitability.
    Authors: Han Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  33. Pharmacological characterization of endothelin receptors-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated proximal and distal colon.
    Authors: Khan Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  34. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel prosecretory neuromodulator in the Guinea-pig and human colon.
    Authors: Schicho Et al.
    J Neurosci
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