Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
Biological ActivityHighly selective, reversible sodium channel blocker; citrate salt of tetrodotoxin.
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Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.
Gleitz et al.
Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin.
Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues.
Citations for Tetrodotoxin citrate
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin citrate include:
74 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
An in vitro model for studying CNS white matter: functional properties and experimental approaches.
Authors: Bijland Et al.
Pharmacological Dissection of Intrinsic Optical Signal Reveals a Functional Coupling between Synaptic Activity and Astrocytic Volume Transient.
Authors: Woo Et al.
Exp Neurobiol 2019;28:30
High-Frequency Microdomain Ca2+ Transients and Waves during Early Myelin Internode Remodeling.
Authors: Battefeld Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:182
Enhancer Histone Acetylation Modulates Transcriptional Bursting Dynamics of Neuronal Activity-Inducible Genes.
Authors: Chen Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:1174
KCC2-Mediated Cl- Extrusion Modulates Spontaneous Hippocampal Network Events in Perinatal Rats and Mice.
Authors: Spoljaric Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:1073
Cholinergic neural activity directs retinal layer-specific angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation.
Authors: Weiner Et al.
Nat Commun 2019;10:2477
Soluble TREM2 ameliorates pathological phenotypes by modulating microglial functions in an Alzheimer's disease model.
Authors: Zhong Et al.
Nat Commun 2019;10:1365
How Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Opens the Spinal Gate for Itch.
Authors: Pagani Et al.
PACAP Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Are Glucose Inhibited and Their Selective Activation Induces Hyperglycaemia.
Authors: Khodai Et al.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018;9:632
Pathway-specific alterations of cortico-amygdala transmission in an arthritis pain model.
Authors: Kiritoshi and Neugebauer
ACS Chem Neurosci 2018;9:2252
Reciprocal Circuits Linking the Prefrontal Cortex with Dorsal and Ventral Thalamic Nuclei.
Authors: Collins Et al.
The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.
Authors: Wall Et al.
Recurrent Circuitry for Balancing Sleep Need and Sleep.
Authors: Donlea Et al.
Selective Role of RGS9-2 in Regulating Retrograde Synaptic Signaling of Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons in Dorsal Striatum.
Authors: Song Et al.
J Neurosci 2018;38:7120
A role for proteolytic regulation of δ-catenin in remodeling a subpopulation of dendritic spines in the rodent brain.
Authors: Yuan Et al.
J Biol Chem 2018;293:11625
The Developmental Shift of NMDA Receptor Composition Proceeds Independently of GluN2 Subunit-Specific GluN2 C-Terminal Sequences.
Authors: McKay Et al.
Cell Rep 2018;25:841
Heparan Sulfate Organizes Neuronal Synapses through Neurexin Partnerships.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Dendritic Integration of Sensory Evidence in Perceptual Decision-Making.
Authors: Groschner Et al.
Differential contribution of Ca2+ sources to day and night BK current activation in the circadian clock.
Authors: Whitt Et al.
J Gen Physiol 2018;150:259
(2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA rescues chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior through its actions in the midbrain periaqueductal gray.
Authors: Chou Et al.
Subcellular Localization and Activity of TRPM4 in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Layer 2/3.
Authors: Riquelme Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2018;12:12
Formation and Maintenance of Functional Spines in the Absence of Presynaptic Glutamate Release.
Authors: Sigler Et al.
Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.
Authors: Park Et al.
Sci Rep 2017;7:40872
Glucagon-like peptide-2 promotes gallbladder refilling via a TGR5-independent, GLP-2R-dependent pathway.
Authors: Yusta Et al.
Mol Metab 2017;6:503
Transcriptomic Analysis of Ribosome-Bound mRNA in Cortical Neurites In Vivo.
Authors: Ouwenga Et al.
J Neurosci 2017;37:8688
Differential Desensitization Observed at Multiple Effectors of Somatic μ-Opioid Receptors Underlies Sustained Agonist-Mediated Inhibition of Proopiomelanocortin Neuron Activity.
Authors: Fox and Hentges
J Neurosci 2017;37:8667
Activation of cortical somatostatin interneurons prevents the development of neuropathic pain.
Authors: Cichon Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2017;20:1122
RNA polymerase II primes Polycomb-repressed developmental genes throughout terminal neuronal differentiation.
Authors: Ferrai Et al.
Mol Syst Biol 2017;13:946
A Model-Based Approach for Separating the Cochlear Microphonic from the Auditory Nerve Neurophonic in the Ongoing Response Using Electrocochleography.
Authors: Fontenot Et al.
Front Neurosci 2017;11:592
FHF-independent conduction of action potentials along the leak-resistant cerebellar granule cell axon.
Authors: Dover Et al.
Nat Commun 2016;7:12895
The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area
Authors: Di Castro Et al.
Scientific Reports 2016;6:34633
Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour.
Authors: Liu Et al.
Transcriptomes of lineage-specific Drosophila neuroblasts profiled by genetic targeting and robotic sorting.
Authors: Yang Et al.
Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
Authors: Thomsen Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;13:87
Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R.
Authors: Angelantonio Et al.
PLoS One 2015;9:409
Fmrp targets or not: long, highly brain-expressed genes tend to be implicated in autism and brain disorders.
Authors: Ouwenga and Dougherty
Mol Autism 2015;6:16
Branch-specific dendritic Ca(2+) spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity.
Authors: Cichon and Gan
Sazetidine-A Activates and Desensitizes Native α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
Authors: Brown and Wonnacott
Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.
Authors: Liu Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2015;35:5680
The Cancer Chemotherapeutic PacT. Increases Human and Rodent Sensory Neuron Responses to TRPV1 by Activation of TLR4.
Authors: Li Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:13487
Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference.
Authors: Slowik and Henderson
J Neurosci 2015;1848:1545
Direct visualization of newly synthesized target proteins in situ.
Authors: Dieck Et al.
Nat Methods 2015;12:411
Giant ankyrin-G stabilizes somatodendritic GABAergic synapses through opposing endocytosis of GABAA receptors.
Authors: Tseng Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;112:1214
Assessment of TTX-s and TTX-r Action Potential Conduction along Neurites of NGF and GDNF Cultured Porcine DRG Somata.
Authors: Jonas Et al.
Neurochem Res 2015;10:e0139107
Excitatory drive onto DArgic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by NE in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.
Authors: Williams Et al.
A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses.
Authors: Halff Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:2051
Activation of P2Y6 receptors increases the voiding frequency in anaesthetized rats by releasing ATP from the bladder urothelium.
Authors: Carneiro Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2014;171:3404
Dynamic interactions mediated by nonredundant signaling mechanisms couple circadian clock neurons.
Authors: Evans Et al.
The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition.
Authors: Bloodgood Et al.
Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration.
Authors: Reutsky-Gefen Et al.
Nat Methods 2013;4:1509
Direct retino-raphe projection alters serotonergic tone and affective behavior.
Authors: Ren Et al.
TRPM2 channels are required for NMDA-induced burst firing and contribute to H(2)O(2)-dependent modulation in substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons.
Authors: Lee Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:1157
Mis-expression of the BK K(+) channel disrupts suprachiasmatic nucleus circuit rhythmicity and alters clock-controlled behavior.
Authors: Montgomery Et al.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2013;304:C299
SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
Authors: Mameza Et al.
Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;288:26697
Optogenetic stimulation of the corticothalamic pathway affects relay cells and GABAergic neurons differently in the mouse visual thalamus.
Authors: Jurgens Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e45717
A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.
Authors: Tozzi Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e38312
In vitro maturation of DArgic neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells: implications for transplantation.
Authors: Watmuff Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;7:e31999
Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.
Authors: Ackman Et al.
Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
Authors: Janssen Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:13889
Increased bursting glutamatergic neurotransmission in an auditory forebrain area of the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata) induced by auditory stimulation.
Authors: Dagostin Et al.
J Biol Chem 2012;198:705
5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors tonically augment synaptic currents in the nucleus tractus solitarii.
Authors: Austgen Et al.
PLoS One 2012;108:2292
Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current.
Authors: Vornanen Et al.
Mar Drugs 2011;9:2409
Multiple arrhythmic syndromes in a newborn, owing to a novel mutation in SCN5A.
Authors: Calloe Et al.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2011;89:723
Efficient derivation of NPCs, spinal motor neurons and midbrain DArgic neurons from hESCs at 3% oxygen.
Authors: Stacpoole Et al.
Nat Protoc 2011;6:1229
Regulation of glycine receptor diffusion properties and gephyrin interactions by protein kinase C.
Authors: Specht Et al.
EMBO J 2011;30:3842
Characteristics of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors involved in contraction of feline ileal longitudinal smooth muscle.
Authors: Wang Et al.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2011;15:267
NE causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+.
Authors: Zemkova Et al.
Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
Authors: Austgen Et al.
Mol Brain 2011;106:1822
Inhibitory network interactions shape the auditory processing of natural communication signals in the songbird auditory forebrain.
Authors: Pinaud Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2008;100:441
A calcium-activated nonselective cation conductance underlies the plateau potential in rat substantia nigra GABAergic neurons.
Authors: Lee and Tepper
J Neurosci 2007;27:6531
New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, γ-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors.
Authors: Kato Et al.
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Phys 2007;27:4969
DArgic modulation of spinal neuronal excitability.
Authors: Han Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2007;27:13192
Pharmacological characterization of endothelin receptors-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated proximal and distal colon.
Authors: Khan Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2006;147:607
Hydrogen sulfide is a novel prosecretory neuromodulator in the Guinea-pig and human colon.
Authors: Schicho Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;131:1542
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used to block calcium oscillations in neurons