Catalog Number: 1069
Alternate Names: TTx citrate
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
Biological Activity
Highly selective, reversible sodium channel blocker; citrate salt of tetrodotoxin.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in water
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
  2. The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.
    Gleitz et al.
    Neuropharmacology, 1996;35:1743
  3. Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin.
    Fed.Proc., 1972;31:1117
  4. Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues.
    Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci., 1986;479:52

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin citrate include:

35 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area
    Authors: Di Castro Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:34633
  2. Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
    Authors: Thomsen Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;13:87
  3. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R.
    Authors: Angelantonio Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;9:409
  4. Fmrp targets or not: long, highly brain-expressed genes tend to be implicated in autism and brain disorders.
    Authors: Ouwenga and Dougherty
    Mol Autism 2015;6:16
  5. Branch-specific dendritic Ca(2+) spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Cichon and Gan
    Nature 2015;520:180
  6. Sazetidine-A Activates and Desensitizes Native α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
    Authors: Brown and Wonnacott
    Gastroenterology 2015;40:2047
  7. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2015;35:5680
  8. Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference.
    Authors: Slowik and Henderson
    J Neurosci 2015;1848:1545
  9. Direct visualization of newly synthesized target proteins in situ.
    Authors: Dieck Et al.
    Nat Methods 2015;12:411
  10. Giant ankyrin-G stabilizes somatodendritic GABAergic synapses through opposing endocytosis of GABAA receptors.
    Authors: Tseng Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;112:1214
  11. Assessment of TTX-s and TTX-r Action Potential Conduction along Neurites of NGF and GDNF Cultured Porcine DRG Somata.
    Authors: Jonas Et al.
    Neurochem Res 2015;10:e0139107
  12. A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses.
    Authors: Halff Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:2051
  13. Dynamic interactions mediated by nonredundant signaling mechanisms couple circadian clock neurons.
    Authors: Evans Et al.
    Neuron 2013;80:973
  14. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition.
    Authors: Bloodgood Et al.
    Nature 2013;503:121
  15. Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration.
    Authors: Reutsky-Gefen Et al.
    Nat Methods 2013;4:1509
  16. Direct retino-raphe projection alters serotonergic tone and affective behavior.
    Authors: Ren Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2013;38:1163
  17. Mis-expression of the BK K(+) channel disrupts suprachiasmatic nucleus circuit rhythmicity and alters clock-controlled behavior.
    Authors: Montgomery Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2013;304:C299
  18. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
    Authors: Mameza Et al.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;288:26697
  19. Optogenetic stimulation of the corticothalamic pathway affects relay cells and GABAergic neurons differently in the mouse visual thalamus.
    Authors: Jurgens Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e45717
  20. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e38312
  21. In vitro maturation of dopaminergic neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells: implications for transplantation.
    Authors: Watmuff Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;7:e31999
  22. Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
    Authors: Janssen Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:13889
  23. Increased bursting glutamatergic neurotransmission in an auditory forebrain area of the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata) induced by auditory stimulation.
    Authors: Dagostin Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2012;198:705
  24. 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors tonically augment synaptic currents in the nucleus tractus solitarii.
    Authors: Austgen Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;108:2292
  25. Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current.
    Authors: Vornanen Et al.
    Mar Drugs 2011;9:2409
  26. Multiple arrhythmic syndromes in a newborn, owing to a novel mutation in SCN5A.
    Authors: Calloe Et al.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2011;89:723
  27. Efficient derivation of NPCs, spinal motor neurons and midbrain dopaminergic neurons from hESCs at 3% oxygen.
    Authors: Stacpoole Et al.
    Nat Protoc 2011;6:1229
  28. Regulation of glycine receptor diffusion properties and gephyrin interactions by protein kinase C.
    Authors: Specht Et al.
    EMBO J 2011;30:3842
  29. Norepinephrine causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+.
    Authors: Zemkova Et al.
    Endocrinology 2011;152:3842
  30. Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
    Authors: Austgen Et al.
    Mol Brain 2011;106:1822
  31. A calcium-activated nonselective cation conductance underlies the plateau potential in rat substantia nigra GABAergic neurons.
    Authors: Lee and Tepper
    J Neurosci 2007;27:6531
  32. New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, γ-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Kato Et al.
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Phys 2007;27:4969
  33. Dopaminergic modulation of spinal neuronal excitability.
    Authors: Han Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2007;27:13192
  34. Pharmacological characterization of endothelin receptors-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated proximal and distal colon.
    Authors: Khan Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2006;147:607
  35. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel prosecretory neuromodulator in the Guinea-pig and human colon.
    Authors: Schicho Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;131:1542
Expand to show all 35 Citations
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