Catalog Number: 1078
Alternate Names: TTx
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
Biological Activity
Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
  2. The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.
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    Neuropharmacology, 1996;35:1743
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    Fed.Proc., 1972;31:1117
  4. Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues.
    Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci., 1986;479:52

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 206

  1. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Authors: Prigge Et al.
    The Journal of Neuroscience
  2. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports
  3. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Miyamoto Et al.
    PLoS Pathog
  4. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.
    Authors: Elgueta Et al.
    Physiol Rep
  5. The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol
  6. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Cell Rep
  7. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    J Neurosci
  8. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain.
    Authors: Scharinger Et al.
    J Cell Biol
  9. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo.
    Authors: Astorga Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  10. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci
  11. Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    J Biomed Sci
  12. Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Jang Et al.
    Mol Brain
  13. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    J Neurosci
  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    J Neurosci
  15. Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity.
    Authors: Pál Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  16. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors.
    Authors: Born Et al.
    Mol Brain
  17. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).
    Authors: Salvitti Et al.
    Toxins (Basel)
  18. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Neurosci
  19. Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch.
    Authors: Laprell Et al.
    Sci Rep
  20. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity.
    Authors: Savtchenko Et al.
    PLoS One
  21. Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons.
    Authors: Morini Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  22. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Hou Et al.
    Nat Commun
  23. Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes.
    Authors: Asano Et al.
    Curr Mol Med
  24. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.
    Authors: Virsolvy Et al.
    Nat Commun
  25. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Stem Cells
  26. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Sci Rep
  27. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.
    Authors: Saunders Et al.
    Sci Rep
  28. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways.
    Authors: Cuthbert Et al.
  29. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.
    Authors: Speed Et al.
    J Neurosci
  30. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    Mol Brain
  31. Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo.
    Authors: Sivakumaran Et al.
    Nat Commun
  32. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.
    Authors: Ganley Et al.
    Front Synaptic Neurosci
  33. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    Mol Brain
  34. Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
    Authors: Ifrim Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  35. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol
  36. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    J Neurosci
  37. Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex.
    Authors: Hooks Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  38. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci
  39. Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium.
    Authors: Eyo Et al.
    J Neurosci
  40. Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  41. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.
    Authors: Stephen Et al.
    Nat Commun
  42. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.
    Authors: Sobieski Et al.
    J Neurosci
  43. Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation.
    Authors: Pisano Et al.
    Biomed Res Int
  44. Diazepam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl(.).
    Authors: Glykys and Staley
    J Cell Sci
  45. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  46. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β.
    Authors: Vossel Et al.
  47. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.
    Authors: Nguyen Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  48. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    J Neurosci
  49. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy.
    Authors: Kano Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther
  50. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  51. Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    Mar Drugs
  52. In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry.
    Authors: Torper Et al.
    J Neurosci
  53. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.
    Authors: Witts Et al.
    PLoS One
  54. Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Xue Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  55. ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  56. The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation.
    Authors: Erlandson Et al.
    J Neurosci
  57. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    Eur J Neurosci
  58. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.
    Authors: Svalø Et al.
    J Neurosci
  59. Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model.
    Authors: Leijon and Magnusson
    PLoS One
  60. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.
    Authors: Tabarean
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  61. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  62. Activation of mGluR2/3 underlies the effects of N-acetylcystein on amygdala-associated autism-like phenotypes in a valproate-induced rat model of autism.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Cereb Cortex
  63. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release.
    Authors: Varodayan and Harrison
    J Neurosci
  64. Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1.
    Authors: Jiang and Zsombok
    Front Neurosci
  65. The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells.
    Authors: Surguy Et al.
    J Neurosci
  66. Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming.
    Authors: Potts Et al.
  67. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis
  68. Quantitative profiling of peptides from RNAs classified as noncoding.
    Authors: Prabakaran Et al.
    Sci Rep
  69. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun
  70. Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission.
    Authors: Wilcox Et al.
  71. Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
  72. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Neurophysiol
  73. Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a.
    Authors: Thomazeau Et al.
    J Neurosci
  74. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
  75. Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala.
    Authors: Diaz Et al.
    J Physiol
  76. Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Gaffaney Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell
  77. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities.
    Authors: Mohn Et al.
    Mol Psychiatry
  78. Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Kim and Ziff
    PLoS Biol
  79. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.
    Authors: Seluzicki Et al.
    PLoS Biol
  80. Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata.
    Authors: Khor Et al.
    Mar Drugs
  81. Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations.
    Authors: Klapoetke Et al.
    Nat Methods
  82. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function.
    Authors: Ostrowski Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev
  83. Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex.
    Authors: Aracri Et al.
    Cereb Cortex
  84. Adenosine-mediated enteric neuromuscular function is affected during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat enteric nervous system.
    Authors: Zoppellaro Et al.
    J Neurosci
  85. Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice.
    Authors: Montarolo Et al.
    PLoS One
  86. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    PLoS One
  87. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One
  88. Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons.
    Authors: Alpert and Alford
    PLoS One
  89. SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    PLoS One
  90. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    PLoS One
  91. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.
    Authors: Santini Et al.
  92. Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density.
    Authors: Oe Et al.
    Sci Rep
  93. Characterization of induced neural progenitors from skin fibroblasts by a novel combination of defined factors.
    Authors: Tian Et al.
    PLoS One
  94. Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network.
    Authors: Huchzermeyer Et al.
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
  95. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.
    Authors: Gunn Et al.
    Nat Commun
  96. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  97. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  98. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  99. Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair.
    Authors: Ardelt Et al.
    Exp Neurol
  100. The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    J Cell Biol
  101. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol
  102. Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility.
    Authors: Broad Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  103. A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  104. Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    J Neurosci
  105. Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
    Authors: Sohn Et al.
    Front Behav Neurosci
  106. Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion.
    Authors: Velmans Et al.
    BMC Neurosci
  107. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals.
    Authors: Chau Et al.
    Mar Drugs
  108. Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation.
    Authors: Malmersjö Et al.
    Nat Commun
  109. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  110. Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex.
    Authors: Thayer Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  111. Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  112. Gephyrin-independent GABA(A)R mobility and clustering during plasticity.
    Authors: Niwa Et al.
    J Comp Neurol
  113. Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex.
    Authors: Hagiwara Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  114. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Front Integr Neurosci
  115. Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    PLoS One
  116. Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons.
    Authors: Jacus Et al.
  117. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Neurosci
  118. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Fortin Et al.
    J Neurosci
  119. A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light.
    Authors: Saszik and DeVries
    J Neurosci
  120. The loop diuretic bumetanide blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons.
    Authors: Shulga Et al.
    J Neurosci
  121. Raf kinase inhibitory protein is required for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression by mediating PKC-dependent MAPK activation.
    Authors: Yamamoto Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  122. Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity.
    Authors: Gaamouch Et al.
    J Neurosci
  123. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
  124. Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia.
    Authors: Ross Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
  125. In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons.
    Authors: Mesfin Et al.
    J Neurotrauma
  126. Lack of kinase regulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channel-dependent currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Nelson and Glitsch
    J Neurosci
  127. Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity.
    Authors: Mitra Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  128. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Leão Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  129. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival.
    Authors: Tan Et al.
    BMC Neurosci
  130. Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth.
    Authors: Chacón Et al.
    PLoS One
  131. Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.
    Authors: You Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  132. Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Luoma Et al.
  133. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
  134. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    Sci Rep
  135. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One
  136. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  137. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Biol Chem
  138. Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
  139. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci
  140. Synaptic glutamate release is modulated by the Na+ -driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger Slc4a8.
    Authors: Sinning Et al.
    J Neurosci
  141. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci
  142. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci
  143. AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev
  144. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Front Pediatr
  145. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J
  146. Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin.
    Authors: Niesmann Et al.
    Nat Commun
  147. Alterations of colonic contractility in long-term diabetic rat model.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  148. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
  149. β1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons.
    Authors: Meitzen Et al.
    J Neurochem
  150. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network.
    Authors: Shinoda Et al.
    J Neurosci
  151. The Etv1/Er81 transcription factor orchestrates activity-dependent gene regulation in the terminal maturation program of cerebellar granule cells.
    Authors: Abe Et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil
  152. An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold.
    Authors: Gómez-Gonzalo Et al.
    PLoS Biol
  153. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.
    Authors: Yeh Et al.
    J Neurosci
  154. Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy.
    Authors: Lorier Et al.
    PLoS One
  155. Selected SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family proteins regulate synapse formation.
    Authors: Mah Et al.
    BMC Neurosci
  156. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation triggers production and release of Alzheimer's amyloid(β)42 from isolated intact nerve terminals.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  157. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Islas Et al.
    J Neurosci
  158. Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism.
    Authors: Fu and Pol
    J Neurosci
  159. Excitotoxic insults lead to peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation.
    Authors: Léveillé Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  160. Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores.
    Authors: Merriam Et al.
  161. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) induces actin assembly in dendritic spines to promote their development and potentiate synaptic strength.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  162. Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Neurosci
  163. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
    Authors: Farkas Et al.
    J Neurosci
  164. Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 dopamine and A2A adenosine receptors.
    Authors: Higley and Sabatini
    Nat Neurosci
  165. Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses.
    Authors: Kim and Alger
    Nat Neurosci
  166. Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking.
    Authors: Messa Et al.
  167. Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
    Authors: Kaneko Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  168. Mechanisms of sustained high firing rates in two classes of vestibular nucleus neurons: differential contributions of resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK currents.
    Authors: Gittis Et al.
    J Neurosci
  169. High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  170. Critical role for TARPs in early development despite broad functional redundancy.
    Authors: Menuz Et al.
  171. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    J Neurosci
  172. Dysfunction of the dentate basket cell circuit in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Zhang and Buckmaster
    Eur J Neurosci
  173. Compensatory enhancement of intrinsic spiking upon NKCC1 disruption in neonatal hippocampus.
    Authors: Sipilä Et al.
    PLoS One
  174. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Neurosci
  175. Regulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and signaling by the caveolar/lipid raft pathway.
    Authors: Francesconi Et al.
    J Neurosci
  176. Activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic signaling in the developing rat dorsal horn by early tissue injury.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  177. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory.
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Tetrodotoxin citrate

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