Catalog Number: 1078
Alternate Names: TTx
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
Biological Activity
Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
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  4. Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues.
    Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci., 1986;479:52

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

212 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system.
    Authors: Kola Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ;3:e1797
  2. Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception.
    Authors: Bellono
    Nature 2017;543:391
  3. GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake.
    Authors: Tuesta
    Nat Neurosci 2017;20(5):708
  4. Methylene blue inhibits GABAA receptors by interaction with GABA binding site.
    Authors: Chen
    Neuropharmacology 2017;119:100
  5. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Authors: Prigge Et al.
    The Journal of Neuroscience 2016;6:7184
  6. The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area.
    Authors: Di Castro Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:34633
  7. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia.
    Authors: Selten Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:34240
  8. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:33377
  9. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:33377
  10. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Miyamoto Et al.
    PLoS Pathog 2016;291:1719
  11. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.
    Authors: Elgueta Et al.
    Physiol Rep 2015;9:6
  12. The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2015;9:469
  13. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Cell Rep 2015;9:450
  14. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;9:384
  15. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain.
    Authors: Scharinger Et al.
    J Cell Biol 2015;9:309
  16. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo.
    Authors: Astorga Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:275
  17. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;9:206
  18. Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    J Biomed Sci 2015;8:7
  19. Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Jang Et al.
    Mol Brain 2015;8:55
  20. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;8:425
  21. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;8:4
  22. Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity.
    Authors: Pál Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;8:35
  23. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors.
    Authors: Born Et al.
    Mol Brain 2015;7:3
  24. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).
    Authors: Salvitti Et al.
    Toxins (Basel) 2015;7:255
  25. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;6:8888
  26. Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch.
    Authors: Laprell Et al.
    Sci Rep 2015;6:8076
  27. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity.
    Authors: Savtchenko Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;6:6597
  28. Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons.
    Authors: Morini Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;6:166
  29. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Hou Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;6:10045
  30. Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes.
    Authors: Asano Et al.
    Curr Mol Med 2015;5:8317
  31. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.
    Authors: Virsolvy Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;5:17969
  32. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Stem Cells 2015;5:14099
  33. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Sci Rep 2015;5:12095
  34. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.
    Authors: Saunders Et al.
    Sci Rep 2015;4
  35. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.
    Authors: Speed Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:9648
  36. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    Mol Brain 2015;35:8866
  37. Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo.
    Authors: Sivakumaran Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;35:8291
  38. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.
    Authors: Ganley Et al.
    Front Synaptic Neurosci 2015;35:7626
  39. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    Mol Brain 2015;35:761
  40. Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
    Authors: Ifrim Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2015;35:7116
  41. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol 2015;35:5664
  42. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:4469
  43. Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex.
    Authors: Hooks Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;35:4418
  44. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:3016
  45. Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium.
    Authors: Eyo Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:2417
  46. Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;35:1712
  47. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.
    Authors: Stephen Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;35:15996
  48. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.
    Authors: Sobieski Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:11105
  49. Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation.
    Authors: Pisano Et al.
    Biomed Res Int 2015;33:1187
  50. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways.
    Authors: Cuthbert Et al.
    Oncotarget 2015;3
  51. Diazepam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl(.).
    Authors: Glykys and Staley
    J Cell Sci 2015;2:1055
  52. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;22:94
  53. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β.
    Authors: Vossel Et al.
    Elife 2015;209:419
  54. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.
    Authors: Nguyen Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;2015:973235
  55. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;18:87
  56. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy.
    Authors: Kano Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther 2015;15:138
  57. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;142:3178
  58. Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    Mar Drugs 2015;13:903
  59. In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry.
    Authors: Torper Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;12:474
  60. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.
    Authors: Witts Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;114:2305
  61. Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Xue Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;112:E4316
  62. ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;112:6820
  63. The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation.
    Authors: Erlandson Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;10:e0132008
  64. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    Eur J Neurosci 2015;10:e0124816
  65. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.
    Authors: Svalø Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;10:e0117350
  66. Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model.
    Authors: Leijon and Magnusson
    PLoS One 2014;9:e98277
  67. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.
    Authors: Tabarean
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014;9:e96643
  68. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;8:e83941
  69. Activation of mGluR2/3 underlies the effects of N-acetylcystein on amygdala-associated autism-like phenotypes in a valproate-induced rat model of autism.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2014;8:219
  70. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release.
    Authors: Varodayan and Harrison
    J Neurosci 2014;7:89
  71. Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1.
    Authors: Jiang and Zsombok
    Front Neurosci 2014;7:270
  72. The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells.
    Authors: Surguy Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;77:43344
  73. Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming.
    Authors: Potts Et al.
    Neurosurgery 2014;75:472
  74. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis 2014;5:e1523
  75. Quantitative profiling of peptides from RNAs classified as noncoding.
    Authors: Prabakaran Et al.
    Sci Rep 2014;5:5429
  76. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun 2014;5:3284
  77. Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission.
    Authors: Wilcox Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2014;39:579
  78. Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2014;369:20130158
  79. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Neurophysiol 2014;34:7999
  80. Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a.
    Authors: Thomazeau Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:1138
  81. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2014;307:G719
  82. Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala.
    Authors: Diaz Et al.
    J Physiol 2014;2:46
  83. Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Gaffaney Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell 2014;25:481
  84. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities.
    Authors: Mohn Et al.
    Mol Psychiatry 2014;19:1133
  85. Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Kim and Ziff
    PLoS Biol 2014;12:e1001900
  86. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.
    Authors: Seluzicki Et al.
    PLoS Biol 2014;12:e1001810
  87. Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata.
    Authors: Khor Et al.
    Mar Drugs 2014;12:1
  88. Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations.
    Authors: Klapoetke Et al.
    Nat Methods 2014;11:338
  89. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function.
    Authors: Ostrowski Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev 2014;111:2493
  90. Adenosine-mediated enteric neuromuscular function is affected during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat enteric nervous system.
    Authors: Zoppellaro Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;8:e72648
  91. Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice.
    Authors: Montarolo Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e69381
  92. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e69019
  93. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e66497
  94. Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons.
    Authors: Alpert and Alford
    PLoS One 2013;8:e63154
  95. SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e54276
  96. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;4:1512
  97. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.
    Authors: Santini Et al.
    Nature 2013;493:411
  98. Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density.
    Authors: Oe Et al.
    Sci Rep 2013;3:1957
  99. Characterization of induced neural progenitors from skin fibroblasts by a novel combination of defined factors.
    Authors: Tian Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;3:1345
  100. Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network.
    Authors: Huchzermeyer Et al.
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013;33:263
  101. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.
    Authors: Gunn Et al.
    Nat Commun 2013;33:19534
  102. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2013;33:11206
  103. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:9634
  104. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:34897
  105. Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair.
    Authors: Ardelt Et al.
    Exp Neurol 2013;248:246
  106. The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    J Cell Biol 2013;201:929
  107. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;17:553
  108. Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility.
    Authors: Broad Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2013;170:1253
  109. A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2013;16:1662
  110. Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;155:894
  111. Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
    Authors: Sohn Et al.
    Front Behav Neurosci 2013;152:612
  112. Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion.
    Authors: Velmans Et al.
    BMC Neurosci 2013;14:36
  113. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals.
    Authors: Chau Et al.
    Mar Drugs 2013;11:2695
  114. Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation.
    Authors: Malmersjö Et al.
    Nat Commun 2013;110:E1524
  115. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:2637
  116. Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex.
    Authors: Thayer Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:1482
  117. Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex.
    Authors: Aracri Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2013;
  118. Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2012;7:e42647
  119. Gephyrin-independent GABA(A)R mobility and clustering during plasticity.
    Authors: Niwa Et al.
    J Comp Neurol 2012;7:e36148
  120. Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex.
    Authors: Hagiwara Et al.
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  121. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse.
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    Front Integr Neurosci 2012;61:1381
  122. Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;35:507
  123. Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons.
    Authors: Jacus Et al.
    Neuropharmacology 2012;32:9374
  124. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Neurosci 2012;32:8521
  125. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Fortin Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:8127
  126. A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light.
    Authors: Saszik and DeVries
    J Neurosci 2012;32:297
  127. The loop diuretic bumetanide blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons.
    Authors: Shulga Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:1757
  128. Raf kinase inhibitory protein is required for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression by mediating PKC-dependent MAPK activation.
    Authors: Yamamoto Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2012;32:14254
  129. Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity.
    Authors: Gaamouch Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:10767
  130. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
    Development 2012;31:2937
  131. Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia.
    Authors: Ross Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2012;302:C1152
  132. In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons.
    Authors: Mesfin Et al.
    J Neurotrauma 2012;29:1982
  133. Lack of kinase regulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channel-dependent currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Nelson and Glitsch
    J Neurosci 2012;287:6326
  134. Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity.
    Authors: Mitra Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2012;15:250
  135. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Leão Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2012;15:1524
  136. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival.
    Authors: Tan Et al.
    BMC Neurosci 2012;13:48
  137. Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth.
    Authors: Chacón Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;139:3200
  138. Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.
    Authors: You Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:1737
  139. Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Luoma Et al.
    Steroids 2011;76:845
  140. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Neuron 2011;72:789
  141. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    Sci Rep 2011;6:e26309
  142. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;6:e16116
  143. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2011;60:1098
  144. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Biol Chem 2011;519:1492
  145. Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2011;33:244
  146. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:753
  147. Synaptic glutamate release is modulated by the Na+ -driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger Slc4a8.
    Authors: Sinning Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:7300
  148. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:17103
  149. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:14861
  150. AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev 2011;31:1323
  151. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Front Pediatr 2011;31:10189
  152. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J 2011;30:2908
  153. Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin.
    Authors: Niesmann Et al.
    Nat Commun 2011;2:557
  154. Alterations of colonic contractility in long-term diabetic rat model.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2011;17:372
  155. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition.
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    Cell 2011;147:1384
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