Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Tetrodotoxin | CAS No. 4368-28-9 | Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Blockers
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Description: Na+ channel blocker
Alternative Names: TTx

Chemical Name: (4R,4aR,5R,7S,9S,10S,10aR,11S,12S)-Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (338)
Supplemental Products

Biological Activity

Tetrodotoxin is a reversible, potent, selective and high affinity inhibitor of voltage gated sodium channels Nav 1.6, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.7 (IC50 values are 2.3 nM, 4.1 nM, 5.3 nM, 7.6 nM, 14 nM and 36 nM, respectively). Binding is reversible and high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Tetrodotoxin shows antagonism of aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity, analgesic effects in mouse models of neuropathy and prolonged duration of local anesthesia in animals when combined with capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin also shows pH-dependent blockade of canine cardiac L-type Ca2+ (Cav1.x) channels, blocks primary reward in an animal study of drug-seeking lever pressing.

Tetrodotoxin citrate (Cat. No. 1069) also available.

Technical Data

Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
Store at -20°C

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Product Datasheets

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Citations for Tetrodotoxin

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

338 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

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  3. Oxytocin Shapes Spontaneous Activity Patterns in the Developing Visual Cortex by Activating Somatostatin Interneurons.
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    Curr Biol  2021;31:322
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    ELIfe  2020;9
  5. TRPM4 Conductances in Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Neurons Generate Persistent Firing during Slow Oscillations
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    J Neurosci  2020;40:4813
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    Cell Rep  2020;32
  7. Polysynaptic inhibition between striatal cholinergic interneurons shapes their network activity patterns in a dopamine-dependent manner.
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    Nat Commun  2020;11:5113
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    Sci Adv  2019;5:eaau8237
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    Science  2019;363:1303
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    Commun Biol  2019;2:127
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    Cell Rep  2019;28:332
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    Cell Rep  2019;28:1154
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    Cell Rep  2019;27:3860
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    Cell Rep  2019;27:2212
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    Cell Rep  2019;26:1378
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    Neuropharmacology  2019;157
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    Neuropharmacology  2019;149:161
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    Front Cell Neurosci  2019;13:330
  21. Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice.
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    Mol Brain  2019;12:29
  22. Class IIa HDACs regulate learning and memory through dynamic experience-dependent repression of transcription.
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    Nat Commun  2019;10:3469
  23. Neural mechanisms of contextual modulation in the retinal direction selective circuit.
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    Nat Commun  2019;10:2431
  24. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles.
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    Front Pharmacol  2018;9:323
  25. The CaMKII/NMDA receptor complex controls hippocampal synaptic transmission by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms.
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    Nat Commun  2018;9:2069
  26. Pauses in Cholinergic Interneuron Activity Are Driven by Excitatory Input and Delayed Rectification, with DA Modulation.
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  27. Hypothalamic Circuits for Predation and Evasion.
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    Neuron  2018;97:911
  28. The Microglial Innate Immune Receptor TREM2 Is Required for Synapse Elimination and Normal Brain Connectivity.
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    Immunity  2018;48:979
  29. Role of Sympathetic Nerves and Adipocyte Catecholamine Uptake in the Vasorelaxant Function of Perivascular Adipose Tissue.
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    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol  2018;38:880
  30. Retinoic Acid Receptor RARα-Dependent Synaptic Signaling Mediates Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity at the Inhibitory Synapses of Mouse Visual Cortex.
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    J Neurosci  2018;38:10454
  31. AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP.
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    Cell Rep  2018;25:974
  32. Calcium Channel CaV2.3 Subunits Regulate Hepatic Glucose Production by Modulating Leptin-Induced Excitation of Arcuate Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons.
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    Cell Rep  2018;25:278
  33. The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism.
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    Nat Neurosci  2018;21:963
  34. All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of KA-induced disinhibition.
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    Nat Methods  2018;15:823
  35. Activation of TREK currents by riluzole in three subgroups of cultured mouse nodose ganglion neurons.
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    PLoS One  2018;13:e0199282
  36. OXT Relieves Neuropathic Pain Through GABA Release and Presynaptic TRPV1 Inhibition in Spinal Cord.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci  2018;11:248
  37. Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Basu Et al.
    Neuron  2017;96:160
  38. LTP at Hilar Mossy Cell-Dentate Granule Cell Synapses Modulates Dentate Gyrus Output by Increasing Excitation/Inhibition Balance.
    Authors: Hashimotodani Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:928
  39. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Vesicle Priming by Munc13 and Munc18.
    Authors: Lai Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:591
  40. A Central Catecholaminergic Circuit Controls Blood Glucose Levels during Stress.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:138
  41. IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:106
  42. CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:800
  43. The Retromer Supports AMPA Receptor Trafficking During LTP.
    Authors: Temkin Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:74
  44. Formation and Maintenance of Functional Spines in the Absence of Presynaptic Glutamate Release.
    Authors: Sigler Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:304
  45. An Automated Platform for Assessment of Congenital and Drug-Induced Arrhythmia with hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: McKeithan Et al.
    Front Physiol  2017;8:766
  46. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.
    Authors: Nagendran Et al.
    Nat Commun  2017;8:625
  47. Inhibition of late sodium current suppresses calcium-related ventricular arrhythmias by reducing the phosphorylation of CaMK-II and sodium channel expressions.
    Authors: Wei Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:981
  48. On-demand optogenetic activation of human stem-cell-derived neurons.
    Authors: Klapper Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:14450
  49. A Co-culture Model for Determining the Target Specificity of the de novo Generated Retinal Ganglion Cells.
    Authors: Teotia Et al.
    Bio Protoc  2017;7
  50. Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception.
    Authors: Bellono
    Nature  2017;543:391
  51. The RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP K Mediates the Effect of BDNF on Dendritic mRNA Metabolism and Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Hippocampal Neurons.
    Authors: Leal Et al.
    Eneuro  2017;4
  52. GluA1 subunit ubiquitination mediates amyloid-β-induced loss of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors.
    Authors: Guntupalli Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:8186
  53. Synaptic Activity Drives a Genomic Program That Promotes a Neuronal Warburg Effect.
    Authors: Bas-Orth Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:5183
  54. Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) controls surface GluA1 protein in synaptic homeostasis.
    Authors: Zhang and Lu
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:15481
  55. GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake.
    Authors: Tuesta
    Nat Neurosci  2017;20(5):708
  56. Posttranslational modification impact on the mechanism by which amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction.
    Authors: Grochowska Et al.
    EMBO Rep  2017;18:962
  57. Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity.
    Authors: Paul Et al.
    Cell  2017;171:522
  58. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.
    Authors: Pollak Et al.
    PLoS One  2017;12:e0172884
  59. Striatopallidal dysfunction underlies repetitive behavior in Shank3-deficient model of autism.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    J Clin Invest  2017;127:1978
  60. Methylene blue inhibits GABAA receptors by interaction with GABA binding site.
    Authors: Chen
    Neuropharmacology  2017;119:100
  61. Targeted Intron Retention and Excision for Rapid Gene Regulation in Response to Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Mauger Et al.
    Neuron  2016;92:1266
  62. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics.
    Authors: Savell Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;7:12091
  63. BK channel inactivation gates daytime excitability in the circadian clock.
    Authors: Whitt Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;7:10837
  64. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Authors: Prigge Et al.
    The Journal of Neuroscience  2016;6:7184
  65. High-throughput compound evaluation on 3D networks of neurons and glia in a microfluidic platform.
    Authors: Wevers Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:38856
  66. The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area.
    Authors: Di Castro Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:34633
  67. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia.
    Authors: Selten Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:34240
  68. DArgic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:33377
  69. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:33377
  70. Layer-specific potentiation of network GABAergic inhibition in the CA1 area of the hippocampus.
    Authors: Colavita Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:28454
  71. Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa.
    Authors: Karaki Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2016;4
  72. Compartmentalized PDE4A5 Signaling Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory.
    Authors: Havekes Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:8936
  73. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens DA D1 Receptor Neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:701
  74. 17β-OE Acutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females.
    Authors: Oberlander
    J Neurosci  2016;36:2677
  75. Tau-Driven Neuronal and Neurotrophic Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Early Tauopathy.
    Authors: Mazzaro Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:2086
  76. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Dendritic Spine Density by PirB.
    Authors: Vidal Et al.
    Eneuro  2016;3
  77. Voltage Dependence of a Neuromodulator-Activated Ionic Current.
    Authors: Gray and Golowasch
    Eneuro  2016;3
  78. Increased Activity of Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) Regulates Activity-dependent AMPA Receptor Trafficking.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2016;291:18856
  79. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Miyamoto Et al.
    PLoS Pathog  2016;291:1719
  80. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2016;10:74
  81. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.
    Authors: Elgueta Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2015;9:6
  82. The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol  2015;9:469
  83. NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Cell Rep  2015;9:450
  84. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following PilC-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;9:384
  85. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain.
    Authors: Scharinger Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2015;9:309
  86. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo.
    Authors: Astorga Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:275
  87. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;9:206
  88. Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    J Biomed Sci  2015;8:7
  89. Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Jang Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;8:55
  90. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;8:425
  91. N-MthD.-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;8:4
  92. Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity.
    Authors: Pál Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;8:35
  93. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors.
    Authors: Born Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;7:3
  94. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).
    Authors: Salvitti Et al.
    Toxins (Basel)  2015;7:255
  95. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;6:8888
  96. Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch.
    Authors: Laprell Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;6:8076
  97. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity.
    Authors: Savtchenko Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;6:6597
  98. Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons.
    Authors: Morini Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;6:166
  99. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Hou Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;6:10045
  100. Synaptic structure and function are altered by the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924.
    Authors: Scudder and Patrick
    Mol Cell Neurosci  2015;65:52
  101. Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes.
    Authors: Asano Et al.
    Curr Mol Med  2015;5:8317
  102. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranol.
    Authors: Virsolvy Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;5:17969
  103. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Stem Cells  2015;5:14099
  104. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;5:12095
  105. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.
    Authors: Saunders Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;4
  106. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.
    Authors: Speed Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:9648
  107. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;35:8866
  108. Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo.
    Authors: Sivakumaran Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;35:8291
  109. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.
    Authors: Ganley Et al.
    Front Synaptic Neurosci  2015;35:7626
  110. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;35:761
  111. Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
    Authors: Ifrim Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2015;35:7116
  112. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol  2015;35:5664
  113. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain DA neurons.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:4469
  114. Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex.
    Authors: Hooks Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;35:4418
  115. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:3016
  116. Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium.
    Authors: Eyo Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:2417
  117. Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;35:1712
  118. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.
    Authors: Stephen Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;35:15996
  119. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.
    Authors: Sobieski Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:11105
  120. Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation.
    Authors: Pisano Et al.
    Biomed Res Int  2015;33:1187
  121. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways.
    Authors: Cuthbert Et al.
    Oncotarget  2015;3
  122. D.pam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl(.).
    Authors: Glykys and Staley
    J Cell Sci  2015;2:1055
  123. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;22:94
  124. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β.
    Authors: Vossel Et al.
    Elife  2015;209:419
  125. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.
    Authors: Nguyen Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;2015:973235
  126. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;18:87
  127. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy.
    Authors: Kano Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther  2015;15:138
  128. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Mediates Levels of Nuclear Phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2.
    Authors: Wiemhoefer Et al.
    Mol Cell Proteomics  2015;14:2177
  129. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;142:3178
  130. Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    Mar Drugs  2015;13:903
  131. In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry.
    Authors: Torper Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;12:474
  132. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.
    Authors: Witts Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;114:2305
  133. Experimental and computational evidence for an essential role of NaV1.6 in spike initiation at stretch-sensitive colorectal afferent endings.
    Authors: Feng Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2015;113:2618
  134. Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Xue Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;112:E4316
  135. ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;112:6820
  136. The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation.
    Authors: Erlandson Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;10:e0132008
  137. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    Eur J Neurosci  2015;10:e0124816
  138. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.
    Authors: Svalø Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;10:e0117350
  139. Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model.
    Authors: Leijon and Magnusson
    PLoS One  2014;9:e98277
  140. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.
    Authors: Tabarean
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2014;9:e96643
  141. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;8:e83941
  142. Activation of mGluR2/3 underlies the effects of N-acetylcystein on amygdala-associated autism-like phenotypes in a valproate-induced rat model of autism.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2014;8:219
  143. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release.
    Authors: Varodayan and Harrison
    J Neurosci  2014;7:89
  144. Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1.
    Authors: Jiang and Zsombok
    Front Neurosci  2014;7:270
  145. The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells.
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