Tetrodotoxin

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
1078/1
Tetrodotoxin | CAS No. 4368-28-9 | Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Blockers
1 Image
Description: Na+ channel blocker
Alternative Names: TTx

Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol

Product Details
Citations (332)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (4)

Biological Activity

Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
319.27
Formula:
C11H17N3O8
Solubility:
Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
Storage:
Desiccate at -20°C
CAS No:
4368-28-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Product Datasheets

or select another batch:
Reconstitution Calculator
Molarity Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Molarity Calculator

=
x
x
g/mol

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Citations for Tetrodotoxin

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

332 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system.
    Authors: Kola Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  ;3:e1797
  2. GABARAPs dysfunction by autophagy deficiency in adolescent brain impairs GABAA receptor trafficking and social behavior.
    Authors: Hui Et al.
    Sci Adv  2019;5:eaau8237
  3. Structures of human Nav1.7 channel in complex with auxiliary subunits and animal toxins.
    Authors: Shen Et al.
    Science  2019;363:1303
  4. Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation.
    Authors: Romanos Et al.
    Commun Biol  2019;2:127
  5. NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content.
    Authors: Chiu Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;28:332
  6. Activation of Astrocytic μ-Opioid Receptor Causes Conditioned Place Preference.
    Authors: Nam Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;28:1154
  7. Aquaporin-4 Surface Trafficking Regulates Astrocytic Process Motility and Synaptic Activity in Health and Autoimmune Disease.
    Authors: Ciappelloni Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:3860
  8. An Autaptic Culture System for Standardized Analyses of iPSC-Derived Human Neurons.
    Authors: Rhee Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:2212
  9. Synergistic Nigral Output Pathways Shape Movement.
    Authors: Rizzi and Tan
    Cell Rep  2019;27:2184
  10. Homeostatic Intrinsic Plasticity Is Functionally Altered in Fmr1 KO Cortical Neurons.
    Authors: Bülow Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;26:1378
  11. Sex-regulated gene dosage effect of PPARα on synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Pierrot Et al.
    Life Sci Alliance  2019;2
  12. KA metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA enhances aggression via periaqueductal gray glutamatergic transmission.
    Authors: Ye Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2019;157
  13. HIV gp120 upregulates tonic inhibition through α5-containing GABAARs.
    Authors: Green and Thayer Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2019;149:161
  14. Myosin XVI Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Dendritic Spines of Purkinje Cells and Affects Presynaptic Organization.
    Authors: Roesler Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2019;13:330
  15. Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    Mol Brain  2019;12:29
  16. Class IIa HDACs regulate learning and memory through dynamic experience-dependent repression of transcription.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:3469
  17. Neural mechanisms of contextual modulation in the retinal direction selective circuit.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:2431
  18. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles.
    Authors: Sándor Et al.
    Front Pharmacol  2018;9:323
  19. The CaMKII/NMDA receptor complex controls hippocampal synaptic transmission by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms.
    Authors: Incontro
    Nat Commun  2018;9:2069
  20. Pauses in Cholinergic Interneuron Activity Are Driven by Excitatory Input and Delayed Rectification, with DA Modulation.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Neuron  2018;98:918
  21. Hypothalamic Circuits for Predation and Evasion.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Neuron  2018;97:911
  22. The Microglial Innate Immune Receptor TREM2 Is Required for Synapse Elimination and Normal Brain Connectivity.
    Authors: Filipello Et al.
    Immunity  2018;48:979
  23. Role of Sympathetic Nerves and Adipocyte Catecholamine Uptake in the Vasorelaxant Function of Perivascular Adipose Tissue.
    Authors: Saxton Et al.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol  2018;38:880
  24. Retinoic Acid Receptor RARα-Dependent Synaptic Signaling Mediates Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity at the Inhibitory Synapses of Mouse Visual Cortex.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    J Neurosci  2018;38:10454
  25. AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP.
    Authors: Purkey Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;25:974
  26. Calcium Channel CaV2.3 Subunits Regulate Hepatic Glucose Production by Modulating Leptin-Induced Excitation of Arcuate Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;25:278
  27. The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism.
    Authors: Beas Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2018;21:963
  28. All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of KA-induced disinhibition.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    Nat Methods  2018;15:823
  29. Activation of TREK currents by riluzole in three subgroups of cultured mouse nodose ganglion neurons.
    Authors: Fernandez-Fernandez Et al.
    PLoS One  2018;13:e0199282
  30. OXT Relieves Neuropathic Pain Through GABA Release and Presynaptic TRPV1 Inhibition in Spinal Cord.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci  2018;11:248
  31. Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Basu Et al.
    Neuron  2017;96:160
  32. LTP at Hilar Mossy Cell-Dentate Granule Cell Synapses Modulates Dentate Gyrus Output by Increasing Excitation/Inhibition Balance.
    Authors: Hashimotodani Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:928
  33. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Vesicle Priming by Munc13 and Munc18.
    Authors: Lai Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:591
  34. A Central Catecholaminergic Circuit Controls Blood Glucose Levels during Stress.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:138
  35. IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:106
  36. CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:800
  37. The Retromer Supports AMPA Receptor Trafficking During LTP.
    Authors: Temkin Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:74
  38. Formation and Maintenance of Functional Spines in the Absence of Presynaptic Glutamate Release.
    Authors: Sigler Et al.
    Neuron  2017;94:304
  39. An Automated Platform for Assessment of Congenital and Drug-Induced Arrhythmia with hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: McKeithan Et al.
    Front Physiol  2017;8:766
  40. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.
    Authors: Nagendran Et al.
    Nat Commun  2017;8:625
  41. Inhibition of late sodium current suppresses calcium-related ventricular arrhythmias by reducing the phosphorylation of CaMK-II and sodium channel expressions.
    Authors: Wei Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:981
  42. On-demand optogenetic activation of human stem-cell-derived neurons.
    Authors: Klapper Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:14450
  43. A Co-culture Model for Determining the Target Specificity of the de novo Generated Retinal Ganglion Cells.
    Authors: Teotia Et al.
    Bio Protoc  2017;7
  44. Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception.
    Authors: Bellono
    Nature  2017;543:391
  45. The RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP K Mediates the Effect of BDNF on Dendritic mRNA Metabolism and Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Hippocampal Neurons.
    Authors: Leal Et al.
    Eneuro  2017;4
  46. GluA1 subunit ubiquitination mediates amyloid-β-induced loss of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors.
    Authors: Guntupalli Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:8186
  47. Synaptic Activity Drives a Genomic Program That Promotes a Neuronal Warburg Effect.
    Authors: Bas-Orth Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:5183
  48. Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) controls surface GluA1 protein in synaptic homeostasis.
    Authors: Zhang and Lu
    J Biol Chem  2017;292:15481
  49. GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake.
    Authors: Tuesta
    Nat Neurosci  2017;20(5):708
  50. Posttranslational modification impact on the mechanism by which amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction.
    Authors: Grochowska Et al.
    EMBO Rep  2017;18:962
  51. Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity.
    Authors: Paul Et al.
    Cell  2017;171:522
  52. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.
    Authors: Pollak Et al.
    PLoS One  2017;12:e0172884
  53. Striatopallidal dysfunction underlies repetitive behavior in Shank3-deficient model of autism.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    J Clin Invest  2017;127:1978
  54. Methylene blue inhibits GABAA receptors by interaction with GABA binding site.
    Authors: Chen
    Neuropharmacology  2017;119:100
  55. Targeted Intron Retention and Excision for Rapid Gene Regulation in Response to Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Mauger Et al.
    Neuron  2016;92:1266
  56. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics.
    Authors: Savell Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;7:12091
  57. BK channel inactivation gates daytime excitability in the circadian clock.
    Authors: Whitt Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;7:10837
  58. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Authors: Prigge Et al.
    The Journal of Neuroscience  2016;6:7184
  59. High-throughput compound evaluation on 3D networks of neurons and glia in a microfluidic platform.
    Authors: Wevers Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:38856
  60. The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area.
    Authors: Di Castro Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:34633
  61. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia.
    Authors: Selten Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:34240
  62. DArgic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:33377
  63. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:33377
  64. Layer-specific potentiation of network GABAergic inhibition in the CA1 area of the hippocampus.
    Authors: Colavita Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:28454
  65. Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa.
    Authors: Karaki Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2016;4
  66. Compartmentalized PDE4A5 Signaling Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory.
    Authors: Havekes Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:8936
  67. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens DA D1 Receptor Neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:701
  68. 17β-OE Acutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females.
    Authors: Oberlander
    J Neurosci  2016;36:2677
  69. Tau-Driven Neuronal and Neurotrophic Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Early Tauopathy.
    Authors: Mazzaro Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:2086
  70. Voltage Dependence of a Neuromodulator-Activated Ionic Current.
    Authors: Gray and Golowasch
    Eneuro  2016;3
  71. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Dendritic Spine Density by PirB.
    Authors: Vidal Et al.
    Eneuro  2016;3
  72. Increased Activity of Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) Regulates Activity-dependent AMPA Receptor Trafficking.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2016;291:18856
  73. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity.
    Authors: Miyamoto Et al.
    PLoS Pathog  2016;291:1719
  74. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2016;10:74
  75. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.
    Authors: Elgueta Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2015;9:6
  76. The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol  2015;9:469
  77. NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Cell Rep  2015;9:450
  78. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following PilC-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;9:384
  79. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain.
    Authors: Scharinger Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2015;9:309
  80. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo.
    Authors: Astorga Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:275
  81. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;9:206
  82. Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    J Biomed Sci  2015;8:7
  83. Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Jang Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;8:55
  84. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;8:425
  85. N-MthD.-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;8:4
  86. Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity.
    Authors: Pál Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;8:35
  87. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors.
    Authors: Born Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;7:3
  88. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).
    Authors: Salvitti Et al.
    Toxins (Basel)  2015;7:255
  89. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;6:8888
  90. Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch.
    Authors: Laprell Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;6:8076
  91. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity.
    Authors: Savtchenko Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;6:6597
  92. Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons.
    Authors: Morini Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;6:166
  93. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Hou Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;6:10045
  94. Synaptic structure and function are altered by the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924.
    Authors: Scudder and Patrick
    Mol Cell Neurosci  2015;65:52
  95. Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes.
    Authors: Asano Et al.
    Curr Mol Med  2015;5:8317
  96. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranol.
    Authors: Virsolvy Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;5:17969
  97. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Stem Cells  2015;5:14099
  98. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;5:12095
  99. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.
    Authors: Saunders Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;4
  100. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.
    Authors: Speed Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:9648
  101. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;35:8866
  102. Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo.
    Authors: Sivakumaran Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;35:8291
  103. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.
    Authors: Ganley Et al.
    Front Synaptic Neurosci  2015;35:7626
  104. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    Mol Brain  2015;35:761
  105. Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
    Authors: Ifrim Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2015;35:7116
  106. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol  2015;35:5664
  107. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain DA neurons.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:4469
  108. Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex.
    Authors: Hooks Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;35:4418
  109. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:3016
  110. Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium.
    Authors: Eyo Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:2417
  111. Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;35:1712
  112. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.
    Authors: Stephen Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;35:15996
  113. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.
    Authors: Sobieski Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:11105
  114. Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation.
    Authors: Pisano Et al.
    Biomed Res Int  2015;33:1187
  115. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways.
    Authors: Cuthbert Et al.
    Oncotarget  2015;3
  116. D.pam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl(.).
    Authors: Glykys and Staley
    J Cell Sci  2015;2:1055
  117. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;22:94
  118. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β.
    Authors: Vossel Et al.
    Elife  2015;209:419
  119. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.
    Authors: Nguyen Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;2015:973235
  120. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;18:87
  121. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy.
    Authors: Kano Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther  2015;15:138
  122. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Mediates Levels of Nuclear Phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2.
    Authors: Wiemhoefer Et al.
    Mol Cell Proteomics  2015;14:2177
  123. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;142:3178
  124. Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    Mar Drugs  2015;13:903
  125. In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry.
    Authors: Torper Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;12:474
  126. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.
    Authors: Witts Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;114:2305
  127. Experimental and computational evidence for an essential role of NaV1.6 in spike initiation at stretch-sensitive colorectal afferent endings.
    Authors: Feng Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2015;113:2618
  128. Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Xue Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;112:E4316
  129. ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;112:6820
  130. The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation.
    Authors: Erlandson Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;10:e0132008
  131. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    Eur J Neurosci  2015;10:e0124816
  132. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.
    Authors: Svalø Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;10:e0117350
  133. Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model.
    Authors: Leijon and Magnusson
    PLoS One  2014;9:e98277
  134. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.
    Authors: Tabarean
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2014;9:e96643
  135. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;8:e83941
  136. Activation of mGluR2/3 underlies the effects of N-acetylcystein on amygdala-associated autism-like phenotypes in a valproate-induced rat model of autism.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2014;8:219
  137. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release.
    Authors: Varodayan and Harrison
    J Neurosci  2014;7:89
  138. Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1.
    Authors: Jiang and Zsombok
    Front Neurosci  2014;7:270
  139. The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells.
    Authors: Surguy Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;77:43344
  140. Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming.
    Authors: Potts Et al.
    Neurosurgery  2014;75:472
  141. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis  2014;5:e1523
  142. Quantitative profiling of peptides from RNAs classified as noncoding.
    Authors: Prabakaran Et al.
    Sci Rep  2014;5:5429
  143. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun  2014;5:3284
  144. Daily variation in the electrophysiological activity of mouse medial habenula neurones.
    Authors: Sakhi Et al.
    J Physiol  2014;592:587
  145. Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission.
    Authors: Wilcox Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2014;39:579
  146. Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  2014;369:20130158
  147. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Neurophysiol  2014;34:7999
  148. Phosphorylation of synapsin I by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 sets the ratio between the resting and recycling pools of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Verstegen Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:7266
  149. Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a.
    Authors: Thomazeau Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:1138
  150. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol  2014;307:G719
  151. Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by DA in the Basolateral Amygdala.
    Authors: Diaz Et al.
    J Physiol  2014;2:46
  152. Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Gaffaney Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell  2014;25:481
  153. DArgic modulation of GABAergic transmission in the entorhinal cortex: concerted roles of α1 adrenoreceptors, inward rectifier K+, and T-type Ca2+ channels.
    Authors: Cilz Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2014;24:3195
  154. Scavenging ROS dramatically increase NMDA receptor whole-cell currents in painted turtle cortical neurons.
    Authors: Dukoff Et al.
    J Exp Biol  2014;217:3346
  155. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities.
    Authors: Mohn Et al.
    Mol Psychiatry  2014;19:1133
  156. Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Kim and Ziff
    PLoS Biol  2014;12:e1001900
  157. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.
    Authors: Seluzicki Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2014;12:e1001810
  158. Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata.
    Authors: Khor Et al.
    Mar Drugs  2014;12:1
  159. Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations.
    Authors: Klapoetke Et al.
    Nat Methods  2014;11:338
  160. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function.
    Authors: Ostrowski Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev  2014;111:2493
  161. Causes and consequences of hyperexcitation in central clock neurons.
    Authors: Diekman Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol  2013;9:e1003196
  162. Adenosine-mediated enteric neuromuscular function is affected during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat enteric nervous system.
    Authors: Zoppellaro Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;8:e72648
  163. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.
    Authors: Ramiro-Cortés
    PLoS One  2013;8:e71155
  164. Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice.
    Authors: Montarolo Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e69381
  165. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e69019
  166. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e66497
  167. Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons.
    Authors: Alpert and Alford
    PLoS One  2013;8:e63154
  168. Optogenetic probing and manipulation of the calyx-type presynaptic terminal in the embryonic chick ciliary ganglion.
    Authors: Egawa Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e59179
  169. SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e54276
  170. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;4:1512
  171. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.
    Authors: Santini Et al.
    Nature  2013;493:411
  172. Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density.
    Authors: Oe Et al.
    Sci Rep  2013;3:1957
  173. Characterization of induced neural progenitors from skin fibroblasts by a novel combination of defined factors.
    Authors: Tian Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;3:1345
  174. Shift in Kiss1 cell activity requires estrogen receptor α.
    Authors: Frazão Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:2807
  175. Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network.
    Authors: Huchzermeyer Et al.
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab  2013;33:263
  176. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.
    Authors: Gunn Et al.
    Nat Commun  2013;33:19534
  177. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2013;33:11206
  178. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2013;288:9634
  179. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2013;288:34897
  180. Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair.
    Authors: Ardelt Et al.
    Exp Neurol  2013;248:246
  181. The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2013;201:929
  182. Genetic markers of a Munc13 protein family member, BAIAP3, are gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine abuse in mice and humans.
    Authors: Wojcik Et al.
    Mol Med  2013;19:135
  183. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol  2013;17:553
  184. Cholinergic interactions between donep. and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility.
    Authors: Broad Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2013;170:1253
  185. A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2013;16:1662
  186. Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration.
    Authors: Cho Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;155:894
  187. Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
    Authors: Sohn Et al.
    Front Behav Neurosci  2013;152:612
  188. Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion.
    Authors: Velmans Et al.
    BMC Neurosci  2013;14:36
  189. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals.
    Authors: Chau Et al.
    Mar Drugs  2013;11:2695
  190. Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation.
    Authors: Malmersjö Et al.
    Nat Commun  2013;110:E1524
  191. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2013;110:2637
  192. Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex.
    Authors: Thayer Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2013;110:1482
  193. Contribution of near-threshold currents to intrinsic oscillatory activity in rat medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells.
    Authors: Boehlen Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2013;109:445
  194. Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex.
    Authors: Aracri Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2013;
  195. Dynamic O-GlcNAc modification regulates CREB-mediated gene expression and memory formation.
    Authors: Rexach Et al.
    Nat Chem Biol  2012;8:253
  196. Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2012;7:e42647
  197. Gephyrin-independent GABA(A)R mobility and clustering during plasticity.
    Authors: Niwa Et al.
    J Comp Neurol  2012;7:e36148
  198. Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex.
    Authors: Hagiwara Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2012;6:18
  199. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Front Integr Neurosci  2012;61:1381
  200. DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;35:507
  201. Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons.
    Authors: Jacus Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2012;32:9374
  202. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Neurosci  2012;32:8521
  203. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Fortin Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:8127
  204. Adenosine release during seizures attenuates GABAA receptor-mediated depolarization.
    Authors: Ilie Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:5321
  205. A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light.
    Authors: Saszik and DeVries
    J Neurosci  2012;32:297
  206. The loop diuretic bumet. blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons.
    Authors: Shulga Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:1757
  207. Raf kinase inhibitory protein is required for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression by mediating PKC-dependent MAPK activation.
    Authors: Yamamoto Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits  2012;32:14254
  208. Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity.
    Authors: Gaamouch Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:10767
  209. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
    Development  2012;31:2937
  210. Activation of TRPA1 by luminal stimuli induces EP4-mediated anion secretion in human and rat colon.
    Authors: Kaji Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol  2012;302:G690
  211. Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia.
    Authors: Ross Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  2012;302:C1152
  212. In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons.
    Authors: Mesfin Et al.
    J Neurotrauma  2012;29:1982
  213. Lack of kinase regulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channel-dependent currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Nelson and Glitsch
    J Neurosci  2012;287:6326
  214. TRPV1-dependent and -independent alterations in the limbic cortex of neuropathic mice: impact on glial caspases and pain perception.
    Authors: Giordano Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2012;22:2495
  215. Characterizing human ion channels in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.
    Authors: Haythornthwaite Et al.
    J Biomol Screen  2012;17:1264
  216. Direct pharmacological monitoring of the developmental switch in NMDA receptor subunit composition using TCN 213, a GluN2A-selective, glycine-dependent antagonist.
    Authors: McKay Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2012;166:924
  217. Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity.
    Authors: Mitra Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2012;15:250
  218. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Leão Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2012;15:1524
  219. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival.
    Authors: Tan Et al.
    BMC Neurosci  2012;13:48
  220. Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth.
    Authors: Chacón Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;139:3200
  221. Actin-dependent rapid recruitment of reluctant synaptic vesicles into a fast-releasing vesicle pool.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:E765
  222. Critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in cortical spreading depression.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:18985
  223. Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-MthD.-aspartate receptors.
    Authors: You Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:1737
  224. Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Luoma Et al.
    Steroids  2011;76:845
  225. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Neuron  2011;72:789
  226. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    Sci Rep  2011;6:e26309
  227. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e16116
  228. Sex difference in sensitivity to allopregnanolone neuroprotection in mice correlates with effect on spontaneous inhibitory post synaptic currents.
    Authors: Kelley Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2011;61:724
  229. CCK stimulation of GLP-1 neurons involves α1-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in glutamatergic synaptic inputs.
    Authors: Hisadome Et al.
    Diabetes  2011;60:2701
  230. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2011;60:1098
  231. Altered Balance of Activity in the Striatal Direct and Indirect Pathways in Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease.
    Authors: Andr&eacute Et al.
    Front Syst Neurosci  2011;5:46
  232. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and K(ATP) Channels.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Front Syst Neurosci  2011;5:14
  233. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Biol Chem  2011;519:1492
  234. Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation.
    Authors: Zhong Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  2011;33:244
  235. Contractile effect of tachykinins on rabbit small intestine.
    Authors: Valero Et al.
    Acta Pharmacol Sin  2011;32:487
  236. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:753
  237. Synaptic glutamate release is modulated by the Na+-driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger Slc4a8.
    Authors: Sinning Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:7300
  238. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:17103
  239. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:14861
  240. AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev  2011;31:1323
  241. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus tractus solitarius tonically regulates synaptic and autonomic function.
    Authors: Clark Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:12318
  242. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Front Pediatr  2011;31:10189
  243. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J  2011;30:2908
  244. Effects of luminal thymol on epithelial transport in human and rat colon.
    Authors: Kaji Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol  2011;300:G1132
  245. Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin.
    Authors: Niesmann Et al.
    Nat Commun  2011;2:557
  246. mGluR5 positive modulators both potentiate activation and restore inhibition in NMDA receptors by PKC dependent pathway.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Biomed Sci  2011;18:19
  247. Alterations of colonic contractility in long-term diabetic rat model.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2011;17:372
  248. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Cell  2011;147:1384
  249. β1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons.
    Authors: Meitzen Et al.
    J Neurochem  2011;116:984
  250. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network.
    Authors: Shinoda Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;108:373
  251. The Etv1/Er81 transcription factor orchestrates activity-dependent gene regulation in the terminal maturation program of cerebellar granule cells.
    Authors: Abe Et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil  2011;108:12497
  252. Inhibitory-excitatory synaptic balance is shifted toward increased excitation in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of heart failure rats.
    Authors: Potapenko Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2011;106:1545
  253. An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold.
    Authors: Gómez-Gonzalo Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2010;8:e1000352
  254. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.
    Authors: Yeh Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;6:e1001207
  255. Endogenous N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) inhibits synaptic plasticity/transmission in the amygdala in a mouse inflammatory pain model.
    Authors: Adedoyin Et al.
    Mol Pain  2010;6:60
  256. Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy.
    Authors: Lorier Et al.
    PLoS One  2010;5:e8766
  257. Genistein directly inhibits native and recombinant NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2010;58:1246
  258. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther  2010;334:522
  259. Selected SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family proteins regulate synapse formation.
    Authors: Mah Et al.
    BMC Neurosci  2010;30:5559
  260. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation triggers production and release of Alzheimer's amyloid(β)42 from isolated intact nerve terminals.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2010;30:3870
  261. Fragile X protein FMRP is required for homeostatic plasticity and regulation of synaptic strength by retinoic acid.
    Authors: Soden and Chen
    J Neurosci  2010;30:16910
  262. Calcium binding to PICK1 is essential for the intracellular retention of AMPA receptors underlying long-term depression.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:16437
  263. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Islas Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:13016
  264. Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism.
    Authors: Fu and Pol
    J Neurosci  2010;30:10205
  265. Excitotoxic insults lead to peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation.
    Authors: Léveillé Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2010;2:110
  266. Reduction in synaptic GABA release contributes to target-selective elevation of PVN neuronal activity in rats with myocardial infarction.
    Authors: Han Et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  2010;299:R129
  267. Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores.
    Authors: Merriam Et al.
    Cell  2010;299:C836
  268. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) induces actin assembly in dendritic spines to promote their development and potentiate synaptic strength.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2010;285:36010
  269. Activation of native TRPC3 cation channels by phospholipase D.
    Authors: Glitsch
    FASEB J  2010;24:318
  270. Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;19:783
  271. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
    Authors: Farkas Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;151:5818
  272. Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 DA and A2A adenosine receptors.
    Authors: Higley and Sabatini
    Nat Neurosci  2010;13:958
  273. Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses.
    Authors: Kim and Alger
    Nat Neurosci  2010;13:592
  274. Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking.
    Authors: Messa Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2010;123:2256
  275. Involvement of caspase activation in azaspiracid-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    Toxicol Sci  2010;114:323
  276. Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
    Authors: Kaneko Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2010;107:19026
  277. Mechanisms of sustained high firing rates in two classes of vestibular nucleus neurons: differential contributions of resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK currents.
    Authors: Gittis Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;104:1625
  278. High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2010;103:2301
  279. Critical role for TARPs in early development despite broad functional redundancy.
    Authors: Menuz Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2009;56:22
  280. Repeated cocaine administration decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated serotonergic enhancement of synaptic activity in rat medial prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2009;34:1979
  281. N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;30:1443
  282. Dysfunction of the dentate basket cell circuit in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Zhang and Buckmaster
    Eur J Neurosci  2009;29:7846
  283. Compensatory enhancement of intrinsic spiking upon NKCC1 disruption in neonatal hippocampus.
    Authors: Sipilä Et al.
    PLoS One  2009;29:6982
  284. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Neurosci  2009;29:476
  285. Regulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and signaling by the caveolar/lipid raft pathway.
    Authors: Francesconi Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;29:3590
  286. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7-containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons.
    Authors: Hruska Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;29:14847
  287. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channel involvement in the regulation of vascular tone.
    Authors: Johnson Et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  2009;296:H1868
  288. UDP-glucose modulates gastric function through P2Y14 receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
    Authors: Bassil Et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol  2009;296:G923
  289. Counting the number of releasable synaptic vesicles in a presynaptic terminal.
    Authors: Ikeda and Bekkers
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2009;106:2945
  290. Early excitability changes in lumbar motoneurons of transgenic SOD1G85R and SOD1G(93A-Low) mice.
    Authors: Pambo-Pambo Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2009;102:3627
  291. Activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic signaling in the developing rat dorsal horn by early tissue injury.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2009;102:2208
  292. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory.
    Authors: Adamcio Et al.
    BMC Biol  2008;6:37
  293. Synapse-specific adaptations to inactivity in hippocampal circuits achieve homeostatic gain control while dampening network reverberation.
    Authors: Kim and Tsien
    Neuron  2008;58:925
  294. Developmental maturation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in mouse thalamic ventrobasal neurones.
    Authors: Peden Et al.
    J Physiol  2008;586:965
  295. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:8040
  296. NMDA receptor blockade with Mem. attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
    Authors: Manning Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2008;28:6670
  297. Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand.
    Authors: Soriano Et al.
    EMBO J  2008;28:10696
  298. Neuronal viability is controlled by a functional relation between synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Léveillé Et al.
    FASEB J  2008;22:4258
  299. Activation of CB1 specifically located on GABAergic interneurons inhibits LTD in the lateral amygdala.
    Authors: Azad Et al.
    Learn Mem  2008;15:143
  300. Activation of prostaglandin EP receptors by lubipro. in rat and human stomach and colon.
    Authors: Bassil Et al.
    PLoS One  2008;154:126
  301. Ischemic insult to cerebellar Purkinje cells causes diminished GABAA receptor function and allopregnanolone neuroprotection is associated with GABAA receptor stabilization.
    Authors: Kelley Et al.
    J Neurochem  2008;107:668
  302. Aberrant early-phase ERK inactivation impedes neuronal function in fragile X syndrome.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Diabetes  2008;105:4429
  303. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels.
    Authors: Pozzi Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;105:323
  304. Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3.
    Authors: Biou Et al.
    Development  2008;105:1038
  305. Spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation in ventral tegmental area DA cells requires PKC.
    Authors: Luu and Malenka
    J Neurophysiol  2008;100:533
  306. AMPA receptor-dependent H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons but not DA axons: one source of a retrograde signal that can inhibit DA release.
    Authors: Avshalumov Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2008;100:1590
  307. Development of chloride-mediated inhibition in neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).
    Authors: Milenković Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2007;98:1634
  308. Modulation of inhibitory activity by nitric oxide in the thalamus.
    Authors: Yang
    J Neurophysiol  2007;97:3386
  309. Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3.
    Authors: Jensen Et al.
    Endocrinology  2007;579:85
  310. Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Neuron  2007;54:599
  311. Tyramine excites rat subthalamic neurons in vitro by a DA-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2007;52:1169
  312. Regionally selective effects of GABA on hypothalamic GABAA receptor mRNA in vitro.
    Authors: Volgin and Kubin
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2007;353:726
  313. Aging impairs neurogenic contraction in guinea pig urinary bladder: role of oxidative stress and melatonin.
    Authors: Gomez-Pinilla Et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  2007;293:R793
  314. Local and global effects of I(h) distribution in dendrites of mammalian neurons.
    Authors: Angelo Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:8643
  315. Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses.
    Authors: Baldelli Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:13520
  316. Somatodendritic release of glutamate regulates synaptic inhibition in cerebellar Purkinje cells via autocrine mGluR1 activation.
    Authors: Duguid Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:12464
  317. Cell-autonomous inhibition of alpha 7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents death of parasympathetic neurons during development.
    Authors: Hruska and Nishi
    J Neurosci  2007;27:11501
  318. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, a potential pacemaking mechanism in early embryonic heart cells.
    Authors: Sasse Et al.
    J Gen Physiol  2007;130:133
  319. Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter.
    Authors: Ziskin Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2007;10:321
  320. Fragile X mental retardation protein deficiency leads to excessive mGluR5-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors.
    Authors: Nakamoto Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2007;104:15537
  321. Transient change in GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in Lurcher cerebellar nuclei during Purkinje cell degeneration.
    Authors: Linnemann Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;7:59
  322. Regulation of nuclear factor κB in the hippocampus by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.
    Authors: O'Riordan Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2006;26:4870
  323. Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2006;26:12943
  324. Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Surges Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;24:94
  325. Neuroprotection associated with alternative splicing of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons.
    Authors: Jaekel Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2006;147:622
  326. Serotoninergic modulation of chloride homeostasis during maturation of the locomotor network in zebrafish.
    Authors: Brustein
    J Neurosci  2005;25:10607
  327. TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling.
    Authors: König Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2005;168:1077
  328. BDNF locally potentiates GABAergic presynaptic machineries: target-selective circuit inhibition.
    Authors: Ohba Et al.
    Cell  2005;15:291
  329. Augmenting neurotransmitter release by enhancing the apparent Ca2+ affinity of synaptotagmin 1.
    Authors: Rhee Et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2005;102:18664
  330. CPG2: a brain- and synapse-specific protein that regulates the endocytosis of glutamate receptors.
    Authors: Cottrell Et al.
    Neuron  2004;44:677
  331. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-interacting protein interacts with neuronal NOS and regulates its distribution and activity.
    Authors: Dreyer Et al.
    J Neurosci  2004;24:10454
  332. Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Nakatsuka Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2003;89:3243

FAQs

No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you may

View all Small Molecule FAQs

Reviews for Tetrodotoxin

Average Rating: 4.8 (Based on 4 Reviews)

5 Star
75%
4 Star
25%
3 Star
0%
2 Star
0%
1 Star
0%

Have you used Tetrodotoxin?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review

Filter by:


Validation
By Anonymous on 04/04/2020
Application: Species: Rat

10 μM for 30min

PMID: 31291571 Reference

The pharmacological inhibitors for electrophysiology assay
By Anonymous on 02/28/2020
Application: Species: Other

The following concentrations we were used:1 μM Bay K, 10 μM nifedipine, 10 μM nimodipine, 300 nM omega -agatoxin, 1 μM omega -conotoxin, 5 μM mibefradil, 1 μM tetrodotoxin, 1 μM charybdotoxin, 100 nM iberiotoxin, 10 μM NS11021.

PMID: 28264196

TTX blocks action potential propagation
By Anonymous on 08/31/2019
Application: Species: Rat

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was used to block action potential propagation in response to lasting current injection into living neuron. This illustrated a critical role of voltage-gated sodium channels in inter-neuronal crosstalk. 1 microM of TTX developed 100% effect (see Figure). Figure: action potential generation by isolated neuron under control and after TTX was added to perfusion solution.


good drug for neuronal activity inhibition
By Lihua Wang on 01/24/2018
Application: Species: Mouse

We use this to block cell activity of the brain slices, in order to keep the cells more healthy after they are dissociated. It works great and helps a lot for our purpose; but the only little problem is that it's very hard to dissolve in the water.


Tocris Bioscience is the leading supplier of novel and exclusive tools for life science research with over 30 years' experience in the industry. Tocris is a Bio-Techne brand.