Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent mesoderm-derived progenitor cells. They have the capacity to differentiate into cells that compose adipose, bone, cartilage, and muscle tissue presenting a wide potential for the development of cell-based therapies. Adult mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the stroma of the bone marrow. R&D Systems offers products for the identification and isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. These include nucleostemin, an intracellular protein which is expressed in MSCs but not differentiated cells. In addition, cell surface markers for undifferentiated MSCs include receptors for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPR), Endoglin, Stem Cell Factor Receptor (SCF R), and STRO-1.