Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). They play critical roles in many CNS functions including clearing neurotransmitters from synapses, regulating ion homeostasis, controlling blood flow, and modulating synaptic function and remodeling. Astrocytes can also be activated in response to different kinds stimuli. CNS injury and disease induce astrocytes to undergo reactive astrogliosis, which involves both biochemical and structural changes to astrocytes. Reactive astrocytes can release either protective or neurotoxic proteins. As a result, reactive astrocytes can exert both detrimental effects, including neuroinflammation and neuropathologies, and beneficial effects, such as neural protection and repair processes, in the CNS following an insult.
ALDH1L1 in Cultured Astrocytes.
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1-L1 (ALDH1L1) was detected in immersion fixed neuron-glial cell cultures using a Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat ALDH1L1 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 2E7; Novus Biologicals, Catalog # NBP2-50033
). Cells were stained (red) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to the cell bodies and processes of astrocytes. The cells were co-stained using a Chicken Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Novus Biologicals, Catalog # NB300-223
; green). Astrocytes positive for both ALDH1L1 and Vimentin appear yellow.
GFAP in Rat Astrocytes.
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) was detected in immersion-fixed rat astrocytes using a Sheep Anti-Human GFAP Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # AF2594
). Cells were stained with the NorthernLights™
557-Conjugated Donkey Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # NL010
; red) and counterstained with DAPI (blue).