Cancer Immunotherapy: Immunogenic Cell Death

DAMPs (damage associated moleular patterns), also known as alarmins, are molecules that are released following immunogenic cell death (ICD). ICD occurs during tissue damage, infection by some oncolytic viruses, or by various chemotherapy treatments. During ICD, the release of soluble intracellular factors acts as a ‘find me’ signal that induces the infiltration of inflammatory natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and mature DC. DAMPs on the cell surface act as ‘eat me’ signals that promote phagocytosis of the damaged cell. This process does not occur in apoptosis which leads to immune tolerance. CD47 is expressed on apoptotic cells, and apoptotic bodies and interacts with SIRP alpha on phagocytes. Apoptotic bodies induce tolerance through Mer and C1q R1/CD93.


Find Me Signals Eat Me Signals


Find Me Signals
Adenosine A2A R agonists CX3CL1 HSP90 Synuclein-alpha
Adenosine A1 R Agonists Genomic and mito DNA NLRP3/NALP3 TIM-3
Adenosine A3 R Agonists GRP78/HSPA5 Oxidation-associated mol patterns –
reactive carbonyls, peroxidized phospholipids
TLR4 agonists
Adenosine A2b R Agonists Heparan sulfate P2X R Agonists Toll-like Receptor Agonists
Non-selective Adenosine R Agonists  Histones P2Y R Agonists Uric acid
CLEC9a HSP70/HSPA1A S1P1/EDG-1 Agonists  
Eat Me Signals
Calreticulin Integrin alpha V beta 5 MFG-E8
Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways

GMP-grade Proteins
Dendritic Cell Activation research area

Luminex Assays
Luminex Assay Customization Tool

Dendritic Cells brochure
Dendritic Cells research area