Catalog Number: 1223
Chemical Name: DL-threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid
Biological Activity
A competitive, non-transportable blocker of excitatory amino acid transporters (IC50 values are 70, 6, and 6 μM for EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 respectively). Also inhibits EAAT4 and EAAT5 (Ki values are 4.4 and 3.2 μM respectively). Displays high selectivity for EAATs over ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Also available as part of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitor Tocriset™.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 5 mM in water with gentle warming
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Licensing Caveats:
Sold for research purposes under license from Suntory Ltd.
Background References
  1. Inhibition of uptake unmasks rapid extracellular turnover of glutamate of nonvesicular origin.
    Jabaudon et al.
    Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A., 1999;96:8733
  2. Effects of threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives on excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT4 and EAAT5).
    Shigeri et al.
    J.Neurochem., 2001;79:297
  3. DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate, a potent blocker of excitatory amino acid transporters.
    Shimamoto et al.
    Mol.Pharmacol., 1998;53:195
  4. Syntheses of optically pure β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives as glutamate transporter blockers.
    Shimamoto et al.
    Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett., 2000;10:2407

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DL-TBOA include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 36

  1. Colocalization�of�neurotransmitter�transporters�on the�plasma�membrane�of the�same�nerve�terminal�may reflect�cotransmission.
    Authors: Romei Et al.
    Brain Research Bulletin
  2. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    BMC Cancer
  3. Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure increases basal glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of mice without affecting glutamate transport.
    Authors: Griffin Et al.
    Front Pharmacol
  4. Burst predicting neurons survive an in vitro glutamate injury model of cerebral ischemia.
    Authors: Kuebler Et al.
    J Neurosci
  5. Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover.
    Authors: Rosa Et al.
    J Neurosci
  6. PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Vance Et al.
    J Neurosci
  7. Conditional deletion of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 reveals that astrocytic GLT-1 protects against fatal epilepsy while neuronal GLT-1 contributes significantly to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes.
    Authors: Petr Et al.
    Sci Rep
  8. Defective Age-Dependent Metaplasticity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
    Authors: Megill Et al.
    Nat Protoc
  9. Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
  10. The glutamate transport inhibitor DL-Threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) differentially affects SN38- and oxaliplatin-induced death of drug-resistant colorectal cancer cells.
    Authors: Pedraz-Cuesta Et al.
    J Neurosci
  11. Acidosis-Induced Dysfunction of Cortical GABAergic Neurons through Astrocyte-Related Excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
  12. Pharmacological Investigation of Fluoro-Gold Entry into Spinal Neurons.
    Authors: Falgairolle and O'Donovan
    J Neurosci
  13. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.
    Authors: Cengiz Et al.
    PLoS One
  14. δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes.
    Authors: Liang Et al.
    Vision Res
  15. Possible roles of glutamate transporter EAAT5 in mouse cone depolarizing bipolar cell light responses.
    Authors: Tse Et al.
    Vision Res
  16. Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses.
    Authors: Tse Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  17. Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina.
    Authors: Jeon Et al.
    PLoS One
  18. Adenosine triphosphate released from HIV-infected macrophages regulates glutamatergic tone and dendritic spine density on neurons.
    Authors: Tovar-y-Romo Et al.
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
  19. Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics.
    Authors: McCall Et al.
    Sci Signal
  20. Conformational ensemble of the sodium-coupled aspartate transporter.
    Authors: Georgieva Et al.
    Nat Struct Mol Biol
  21. Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition.
    Authors: He Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci
  22. Astrocytes modulate neural network activity by Ca2+-dependent uptake of extracellular K+.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  23. The mode of retinal presynaptic inhibition switches with light intensity.
    Authors: Ichinose and Lukasiewicz
    J Neurosci
  24. Water and urea permeation pathways of the human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1.
    Authors: Vandenberg Et al.
    Biochem J
  25. Morphine potentiates neurodegenerative effects of HIV-1 Tat through actions at μ-opioid receptor-expressing glia.
    Authors: Zou Et al.
  26. Young age and low temperature, but not female gender delay ATP loss and glutamate release, and protect Purkinje cells during simulated ischemia in cerebellar slices.
    Authors: Mohr Et al.
  27. Excitability and synaptic communication within the oligodendrocyte lineage.
    Authors: Biase Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  28. Distinct retinal deficits in a zebrafish pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant.
    Authors: Maurer Et al.
    J Neurosci
  29. Inhibition of glutamate transporters couples to Kv4.2 dephosphorylation through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Mulholland and Chandler
    PLoS One
  30. Retrograde intraflagellar transport by cytoplasmic dynein-2 is required for outer segment extension in vertebrate photoreceptors but not arrestin translocation.
    Authors: Krock Et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
  31. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci
  32. White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Baltan Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  33. Neuronal viability is controlled by a functional relation between synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Léveillé Et al.
  34. Effects of ethanol on photoreceptors and visual function in developing zebrafish.
    Authors: Matsui Et al.
    J Neurosci
  35. Two coincidence detectors for spike timing-dependent plasticity in somatosensory cortex.
    Authors: Bender Et al.
    J Neurosci
  36. Behavioral stress enhances hippocampal CA1 long-term depression through the blockade of the glutamate uptake.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
Expand to show all
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