Human CD28 Antibody

(18 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human CD28 in Western blots. In Western blots, this antibody does not cross-react with recombinant mouse (rm) CD28, rhCTLA4, or rmCTLA4.
  • Source
    Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 37407
  • Purification
    Protein A or G purified from ascites
  • Immunogen
    S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human CD28
    Asn19-Pro152
    Accession # P10747
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose and Mannitol. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human CD28 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 342-CD)
    under non-reducing conditions only
  • Flow Cytometry
    2.5 µg/106 cells
    Human whole blood CD3+ T cells
  • Agonist Activity
    0.2-0.6 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Human CD28 Antibody Enhances IL-2 Secretion in Jurkat Cells. Human CD28 Monoclonal Antibody enhances IL-2 secretion in the Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line stimulated with 10 ng/mL phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and 0.5 μM calcium ionophore, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured using the Quantikine Human IL-2 ELISA Kit (Catalog # D2050). The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.2-0.6 μg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: CD28

CD28 and CTLA-4, together with their ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CD28 and CTLA-4 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CD28 and CTLA-4 are composed of a single Ig
V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CD28 and CTLA-4 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 1. Mouse CD28 is expressed constitutively on virtually 100% of mouse T cells and on developing thymocytes. Cell surface expression of mouse CD28 is down-regulated upon ligation of CD28 in the presence of PMA or PHA. In contrast, CTLA-4 is not expressed constitutively but is up-regulated rapidly following T cell activation and CD28 ligation. Cell surface expression of mouse CTLA-4 peaks approximately 48 hours after activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with a 20-100 fold higher affinity than CD28. CD28/B7 interaction has been shown to prevent apoptosis of activated T cells via the upregulation of Bcl-xL. CD28 ligation has also been shown to regulate Th1/Th2 differentiation.

  • References:
    1. Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
    2. Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
    3. Ward, S.G. (1996) Biochem. J. 318:361.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    940 (Human); 12487 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    CD28 antigen (Tp44); CD28 antigen; CD28 molecule; CD28; MGC138290; T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28; Tp44
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 18
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Platelets provoke distinct dynamics of immune responses by differentially regulating CD4+ T-cell proliferation.
    Authors: Zhu L, Huang Z, Stalesen R, Hansson G, Li N
    J Thromb Haemost, 2014;12(7):1156-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. A novel data mining system points out hidden relationships between immunological markers in multiple sclerosis.
    Authors: Gironi, Maira, Saresella, Marina, Rovaris, Marco, Vaghi, Matilde, Nemni, Raffaell, Clerici, Mario, Grossi, Enzo
    Immun Ageing, 2013;10(1):1.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: whole cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Neuropilin-1 expression characterizes T follicular helper (Tfh) cells activated during B cell differentiation in human secondary lymphoid organs.
    Authors: Renand A, Milpied P, Rossignol J, Bruneau J, Lemonnier F, Dussiot M, Coulon S, Hermine O
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e85589.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  4. The Th17 cytokine IL-22 induces IL-20 production in keratinocytes: a novel immunological cascade with potential relevance in psoriasis.
    Authors: Wolk K, Witte E, Warszawska K, Schulze-Tanzil G, Witte K, Philipp S, Kunz S, Docke WD, Asadullah K, Volk HD, Sterry W, Sabat R
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2009;39(12):3570-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  5. Human bronchial intraepithelial T cells produce interferon-gamma and stimulate epithelial cells.
    Authors: Hirosako S, Goto E, Fujii K, Tsumori K, Hirata N, Tsumura S, Kamohara H, Kohrogi H
    Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2009;155(2):266-74.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  6. Suppression of immune responses in collagen-induced arthritis by a rationally designed CD80-binding peptide agent.
    Authors: Srinivasan M, Eri R, Zunt SL, Summerlin DJ, Brand DD, Blum JS
    Arthritis Rheum., 2007;56(2):498-508.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Binding Assay
  7. Overlapping human leukocyte antigen class I/II binding peptide vaccine for the treatment of patients with stage IV melanoma: evidence of systemic immune dysfunction.
    Authors: Celis E, Celis E
    Cancer, 2007;110(1):203-14.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  8. Human dendritic cells acquire a semimature phenotype and lymph node homing potential through interaction with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
    Authors: Bayry J, Triebel F, Kaveri SV, Tough DF
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(7):4184-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  9. The association of Sam68 with Vav1 contributes to tumorigenesis.
    Authors: Lazer G, Pe'er L, Schapira V, Richard S, Katzav S
    Cell. Signal., 2007;19(12):2479-86.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  10. The soluble forms of CD28, CD86 and CTLA-4 constitute possible immunological markers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
    Authors: Sakthivel P, Shively V, Kakoulidou M
    J. Intern. Med., 2007;261(4):399-407.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Plasma
    Application: ELISA Development
  11. Effects of specific immunotherapy on the B7 family of costimulatory molecules in allergic inflammation.
    Authors: Piconi S, Trabattoni D, Saresella M, Iemoli E, Schenal M, Fusi A, Borelli M, Chen L, Mascheri A, Clerici M
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(3):1931-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  12. Flow-cytometric analysis of cytokine production in human paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Authors: Mamoni RL, Blotta MH
    Cytokine, 2006;35(3):207-16.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  13. Autoantibodies against CD28 are associated with atopic diseases.
    Authors: Neuber K, Mahnss B, Hubner C, Gergely H, Weichenthal M
    Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2006;146(2):262-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: recombinant CD28
    Application: WB
  14. Tristetraprolin down-regulates IL-2 gene expression through AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay.
    Authors: Ogilvie RL, Abelson M, Hau HH, Vlasova I, Blackshear PJ, Bohjanen PR
    J. Immunol., 2005;174(2):953-61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  15. IL-22 increases the innate immunity of tissues.
    Authors: Wolk K, Kunz S, Witte E, Friedrich M, Asadullah K, Sabat R
    Immunity, 2004;21(2):241-54.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  16. Induction of lysosomal and plasma membrane-bound sialidases in human T-cells via T-cell receptor.
    Authors: Wang P, Zhang J, Bian H, Wu P, Kuvelkar R, Kung TT, Crawley Y, Egan RW, Billah MM
    Biochem. J., 2004;380(0):425-33.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  17. HIV-1 Nef binds the DOCK2-ELMO1 complex to activate rac and inhibit lymphocyte chemotaxis.
    Authors: Janardhan A, Swigut T, Hill B, Myers MP, Skowronski J
    PLoS Biol., 2004;2(1):E6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  18. Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL-10 family members?
    Authors: Wolk K, Kunz S, Asadullah K, Sabat R
    J. Immunol., 2002;168(11):5397-402.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
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