Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA

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Human GDF-15 ELISA Standard Curve
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Product Details
Citations (42)
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Reviews (3)

Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Sample Volume Required
100 µL
Assay Range
7.8 - 500 pg/mL
Sufficient Materials
For fifteen 96-well plates*
Please see the product datasheet

* Provided that the recommended microplates, buffers, diluents, substrates and solutions are used, and the assay is run as summarized in the Assay Procedure provided.

This DuoSet ELISA Development kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure natural and recombinant human GDF-15. The suggested diluent is suitable for the analysis of most cell culture supernate samples. Diluents for complex matrices, such as serum and plasma, should be evaluated prior to use in this DuoSet.

Product Features

  • Optimized capture and detection antibody pairings with recommended concentrations save lengthy development time
  • Development protocols are provided to guide further assay optimization
  • Assay can be customized to your specific needs
  • Economical alternative to complete kits

Kit Content

  • Capture Antibody
  • Detection Antibody
  • Recombinant Standard
  • Streptavidin conjugated to horseradish-peroxidase (Streptavidin-HRP)

Other Reagents Required

DuoSet Ancillary Reagent Kit 2 (5 plates): (Catalog # DY008) containing 96 well microplates, plate sealers, substrate solution, stop solution, plate coating buffer (PBS), wash buffer, and Reagent Diluent Concentrate 2.

The components listed above may be purchased separately:

PBS: (Catalog # DY006), or 137 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, 8.1 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, pH 7.2 - 7.4, 0.2 µm filtered

Wash Buffer: (Catalog # WA126), or 0.05% Tween® 20 in PBS, pH 7.2-7.4

Reagent Diluent: (Catalog # DY995), or 1% BSA in PBS, pH 7.2-7.4, 0.2 µm filtered

Substrate Solution: 1:1 mixture of Color Reagent A (H2O2) and Color Reagent B (Tetramethylbenzidine) (Catalog # DY999)

Stop Solution: 2 N H2SO4 (Catalog # DY994)

Microplates: R&D Systems (Catalog # DY990)

Plate Sealers: ELISA Plate Sealers (Catalog # DY992)

Scientific Data

Human GDF-15 ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: GDF-15

Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. They are produced as inactive preproproteins which are then cleaved and assembled into active secreted homodimers. GDF dimers are disulfide-linked with the exception of GDF-3 and -9. GDF proteins are important during embryonic development, particularly in the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems.

Long Name:
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs:
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names:
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

Assay Procedure


Plate Preparation

  1. Dilute the Capture Antibody to the working concentration in PBS without carrier protein. Immediately coat a 96-well microplate with 100 μL per well of the diluted Capture Antibody. Seal the plate and incubate overnight at room temperature.
  2. Aspirate each well and wash with Wash Buffer, repeating the process two times for a total of three washes. Wash by filling each well with Wash Buffer (400 μL) using a squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or autowasher. Complete removal of liquid at each step is essential for good performance. After the last wash, remove any remaining Wash Buffer by aspirating or by inverting the plate and blotting it against clean paper towels.
  3. Block plates by adding 300 μL Reagent Diluent to each well. Incubate at room temperature for a minimum of 1 hour.
  4. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2. The plates are now ready for sample addition.

Assay Procedure

  1. Add 100 μL of sample or standards in Reagent Diluent, or an appropriate diluent, per well. Cover with an adhesive strip and incubate 2 hours at room temperature.
  2. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2 of Plate Preparation.
  3. Add 100 μL of the Detection Antibody, diluted in Reagent Diluent, to each well. Cover with a new adhesive strip and incubate 2 hours at room temperature.
  4. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2 of Plate Preparation.
  5. Add 100 μL of the working dilution of Streptavidin-HRP to each well. Cover the plate and incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature. Avoid placing the plate in direct light.
  6. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2.
  7. Add 100 μL of Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature. Avoid placing the plate in direct light.
  8. Add 50 μL of Stop Solution to each well. Gently tap the plate to ensure thorough mixing.
  9. Determine the optical density of each well immediately, using a microplate reader set to 450 nm. If wavelength correction is available, set to 540 nm or 570 nm. If wavelength correction is not available, subtract readings at 540 nm or 570 nm from the readings at 450 nm. This subtraction will correct for optical imperfections in the plate. Readings made directly at 450 nm without correction may be higher and less accurate.

Citations for Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

42 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Fetally-encoded GDF15 and maternal GDF15 sensitivity are major determinants of nausea and vomiting in human pregnancy
    Authors: Fejzo, M;Rocha, N;Cimino, I;Lockhart, SM;Petry, C;Kay, RG;Burling, K;Barker, P;George, AL;Yasara, N;Premawardhena, A;Gong, S;Cook, E;Rainbow, K;Withers, DJ;Cortessis, V;Mullin, PM;MacGibbon, KW;Jin, E;Kam, A;Campbell, A;Polasek, O;Tzoneva, G;Gribble, FM;Yeo, G;Lam, B;Saudek, V;Hughes, IA;Ong, KK;Perry, J;Sutton Cole, A;Baumgarten, M;Welsh, P;Sattar, N;Smith, G;Charnock Jones, DS;Coll, AP;Meek, CL;Mettananda, S;Hayward, C;Mancuso, N;O'Rahilly, S;
    bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  2. A Story of PA/BSA and Biomarkers to Diagnose Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis-The Rise of IGF-BP2 and GDF-15
    Authors: J Kletzer, S Hecht, S Ramsauer, B Scharinger, R Kaufmann, J Kammler, J Kellermair, K Akbari, H Blessberge, C Steinwende, K Hergan, UC Hoppe, M Lichtenaue, E Boxhammer
    Journal of cardiovascular development and disease, 2023-01-05;10(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  3. Intermittent fasting increases growth differentiation factor 15 in females with overweight or obesity but not associated with food intake
    Authors: K Liu, B Liu, GA Wittert, CH Thompson, AT Hutchison, LK Heilbronn
    Obesity research & clinical practice, 2022-12-09;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  4. The fatal trajectory of pulmonary COVID-19 is driven by lobular ischemia and fibrotic remodelling
    Authors: M Ackermann, JC Kamp, C Werlein, CL Walsh, H Stark, V Prade, R Surabattul, WL Wagner, C Disney, AJ Bodey, T Illig, DJ Leeming, MA Karsdal, A Tzankov, P Boor, MP Kühnel, FP Länger, SE Verleden, HM Kvasnicka, HH Kreipe, A Haverich, SM Black, A Walch, P Tafforeau, PD Lee, MM Hoeper, T Welte, B Seeliger, S David, D Schuppan, SJ Mentzer, DD Jonigk
    EBioMedicine, 2022-10-04;85(0):104296.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  5. CT-Diagnosed Sarcopenia and Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Is It Possible to Predict Muscle Loss Based on Laboratory Tests?-A Multicentric Retrospective Analysis
    Authors: S Hecht, E Boxhammer, R Kaufmann, B Scharinger, C Reiter, J Kammler, J Kellermair, M Hammerer, H Blessberge, C Steinwende, UC Hoppe, K Hergan, M Lichtenaue
    Journal of personalized medicine, 2022-09-04;12(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  6. A TGFbetaR inhibitor represses keratin-7 expression in 3D cultures of human salivary gland progenitor cells
    Authors: EW Fowler, EJ van Venroo, RL Witt, X Jia
    Scientific Reports, 2022-09-02;12(1):15008.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  7. Combined genetic deletion of GDF15 and FGF21 has modest effects on body weight, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high fat fed mice
    Authors: S Patel, A Haider, A Alvarez-Gu, G Bidault, JS El-Sayed M, E Guiu-Jurad, JA Tadross, J Warner, J Harrison, S Virtue, F Scurria, I Zvetkova, M Blüher, KS Small, S O'Rahilly, DB Savage
    Molecular Metabolism, 2022-09-02;65(0):101589.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  8. The Upregulation of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor beta/Smad Signaling in Bladder Carcinoma Cells
    Authors: CP Hou, KH Tsui, ST Chen, KS Chang, HC Sung, SY Hsu, YH Lin, TH Feng, HH Juang
    Biomedicines, 2022-07-07;10(7):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  9. Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Heart Failure and Exercise Intolerance: Kynurenine as a Potential Biomarker
    Authors: T Bekfani, M Bekhite, S Neugebauer, S Derlien, A Hamadanchi, J Nisser, MS Hilse, D Haase, T Kretzschma, MF Wu, M Lichtenaue, M Kiehntopf, S von Haehli, P Schlattman, G Lehmann, M Franz, S Möbius-Win, C Schulze
    Cells, 2022-05-18;11(10):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  10. Elevated Levels of Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 in the Aqueous Humor and Serum of Glaucoma Patients
    Authors: R Maddala, LTY Ho, S Karnam, I Navarro, A Osterwald, SS Stinnett, C Ullmer, RR Vann, P Challa, PV Rao
    Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2022-01-29;11(3):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Aqueous Humor
  11. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells by upregulating growth differentiation factor 15
    Authors: CP Hou, KH Tsui, KS Chang, HC Sung, SY Hsu, YH Lin, PS Yang, CL Chen, TH Feng, HH Juang
    Biomedical journal, 2021-10-15;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  12. Longitudinal association of the anti-inflammatory serum marker GDF-15 with serum IgA and IgG in apparently healthy children
    Authors: G Carreras-B, A Gómez-Vila, B Mas-Parés, S Xargay-Tor, A Prats-Puig, E Puerto-Car, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez, J Bassols, A López-Berm
    Scientific Reports, 2021-09-14;11(1):18215.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  13. GDF-15 Deficiency Reduces Autophagic Activity in Human Macrophages In Vitro and Decreases p62-Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions in Mice
    Authors: A Heduschke, K Ackermann, B Wilhelm, L Mey, GA Bonaterra, R Kinscherf, A Schwarz
    Cells, 2021-09-07;10(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  14. The dynamics of human bone marrow adipose tissue in response to feeding and fasting
    Authors: PK Fazeli, MA Bredella, OG Pachon-Peñ, W Zhao, X Zhang, AT Faje, M Resulaj, SP Polineni, TM Holmes, H Lee, EK O'Donnell, OA MacDougald, MC Horowitz, CJ Rosen, A Klibanski
    JCI Insight, 2021-06-22;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  15. Plasma biomarkers of the amyloid pathway are associated with geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration
    Authors: K Lashkari, GC Teague, U Beattie, J Betts, S Kumar, MM McLaughlin, FJ López
    PLoS ONE, 2020-08-07;15(8):e0236283.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  16. Prognostic Value of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Kidney Donors and Recipients
    Authors: U Jehn, K Schütte-Nü, U Henke, J Bautz, H Pavenstädt, B Suwelack, S Reuter
    J Clin Med, 2020-05-03;9(5):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  17. Expression of the Novel Cardiac Biomarkers sST2, GDF-15, suPAR, and H-FABP in HFpEF Patients Compared to ICM, DCM, and Controls
    Authors: P Jirak, R Pistulli, M Lichtenaue, B Wernly, V Paar, LJ Motloch, R Rezar, C Jung, UC Hoppe, PC Schulze, D Kretzschma, RC Braun-Dull, T Bekfani
    J Clin Med, 2020-04-15;9(4):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  18. Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Authors: PK Luukkonen, S Dufour, K Lyu, XM Zhang, A Hakkaraine, TE Lehtimäki, GW Cline, KF Petersen, GI Shulman, H Yki-Järvin
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2020-03-16;117(13):7347-7354.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  19. The myokine GDF-15 is a potential biomarker for myositis and associates with the protein aggregates of sporadic inclusion body myositis
    Authors: B De Paepe, F Verhamme, JL De Bleecke
    Cytokine, 2020-01-02;127(0):154966.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  20. Circulating growth/differentiation factor 15 is associated with human CD56bright natural killer cell dysfunction and nosocomial infection in severe systemic inflammation
    Authors: H Kleinertz, M Hepner-Sch, S Ehnert, M Claus, R Halbgebaue, L Boller, M Huber-Lang, P Cinelli, C Kirschning, S Flohé, A Sander, C Waydhas, S Vonderhage, M Jäger, M Dudda, C Watzl, SB Flohé
    EBioMedicine, 2019-04-13;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  21. A multiplex immunoassay of serum biomarkers for the detection of uveal melanoma
    Authors: J Song, SL Merbs, LJ Sokoll, DW Chan, Z Zhang
    Clin Proteomics, 2019-03-05;16(0):10.
  22. Potential relation between soluble growth differentiation factor-15 and testosterone deficiency in male patients with coronary artery disease
    Authors: H Liu, Y Lyu, D Li, Y Cui, Y Huang, W Dai, Y Li
    Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2019-02-28;18(1):21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  23. Growth and differentiation factor 15 is a biomarker for low back pain-associated disability
    Authors: N Tarabeih, A Shalata, S Trofimov, A Kalinkovic, G Livshits
    Cytokine, 2019-02-15;117(0):8-14.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  24. Association of serum level of growth differentiation factor 15 with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Authors: Liu X, Chi X, Gong Q, Gao L, Niu Y, Chi X, Cheng M, Si Y, Wang M, Zhong J, Niu J, Yang W
    PLoS ONE, 2015-05-21;10(5):e0127518.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  25. Growth differentiating factor 15 enhances the tumor-initiating and self-renewal potential of multiple myeloma cells.
    Authors: Tanno, Toshihik, Lim, Yiting, Wang, Qiuju, Chesi, Marta, Bergsagel, P Leif, Matthews, Geoff, Johnstone, Ricky W, Ghosh, Nilanjan, Borrello, Ivan, Huff, Carol An, Matsui, William
    Blood, 2013-12-17;123(5):725-33.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  26. Inappropriately low hepcidin levels in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome carrying a somatic mutation of SF3B1.
    Authors: Ambaglio I, Malcovati L, Papaemmanuil E, Laarakkers C, Della Porta M, Galli A, Da Via M, Bono E, Ubezio M, Travaglino E, Albertini R, Campbell P, Swinkels D, Cazzola M
    Haematologica, 2013-01-08;98(3):420-3.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  27. Wild-type p53 attenuates cancer cell motility by inducing growth differentiation factor-15 expression.
    Authors: Cheng JC, Chang HM, Leung PC
    Endocrinology, 2011-05-17;152(8):2987-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  28. Plasma markers for identifying patients with metastatic melanoma.
    Authors: Kluger HM, Hoyt K, Bacchiocchi A, Mayer T, Kirsch J, Kluger Y, Sznol M, Ariyan S, Molinaro A, Halaban R
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2011-04-12;17(8):2417-25.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  29. Transferrin receptor 2 is a component of the erythropoietin receptor complex and is required for efficient erythropoiesis.
    Authors: Forejtnikova H, Vieillevoye M, Zermati Y, Lambert M, Pellegrino RM, Guihard S, Gaudry M, Camaschella C, Lacombe C, Roetto A, Mayeux P, Verdier F
    Blood, 2010-09-08;116(24):5357-67.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  30. GDF-15 contributes to proliferation and immune escape of malignant gliomas.
    Authors: Roth P, Junker M, Tritschler I, Mittelbronn M, Dombrowski Y, Breit SN, Tabatabai G, Wick W, Weller M, Wischhusen J
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2010-06-09;16(15):3851-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  31. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 regulates melanoma vascular development.
    Authors: Huh SJ, Chung CY, Sharma A
    Am. J. Pathol., 2010-04-29;176(6):2948-57.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  32. Progressive postnatal motoneuron loss in mice lacking GDF-15.
    Authors: Strelau J, Strzelczyk A, Rusu P, Bendner G, Wiese S, Diella F, Altick AL, von Bartheld CS, Klein R, Sendtner M, Unsicker K
    J. Neurosci., 2009-10-28;29(43):13640-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  33. Regulation of iron metabolism through GDF15 and hepcidin in pyruvate kinase deficiency.
    Authors: Finkenstedt A, Bianchi P, Theurl I, Vogel W, Witcher DR, Wroblewski VJ, Murphy AT, Zanella A, Zoller H
    Br. J. Haematol., 2008-12-20;144(5):789-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  34. Identification of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 in adipose tissue and its secretion as an adipokine by human adipocytes.
    Authors: Ding Q, Mracek T, Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Kos K, Wilding J, Trayhurn P, Bing C
    Endocrinology, 2008-12-12;150(4):1688-96.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  35. Regulation of growth differentiation factor 15 expression by intracellular iron.
    Authors: Lakhal S, Talbot NP, Crosby A, Stoepker C, Townsend AR, Robbins PA, Pugh CW, Ratcliffe PJ, Mole DR
    Blood, 2008-12-01;113(7):1555-63.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  36. Growth differentiation factor 15 production is necessary for normal erythroid differentiation and is increased in refractory anaemia with ring-sideroblasts.
    Authors: Ramirez JM, Schaad O, Durual S, Cossali D, Docquier M, Beris P, Descombes P, Matthes T
    Br. J. Haematol., 2008-11-19;144(2):251-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  37. Iron metabolism in heterozygotes for hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia 1, or beta-thalassemia and in compound heterozygotes for HbE/beta-thalassemia.
    Authors: Zimmermann MB, Fucharoen S, Winichagoon P, Sirankapracha P, Zeder C, Gowachirapant S, Judprasong K, Tanno T, Miller JL, Hurrell RF
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008-10-01;88(4):1026-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  38. Elevated growth differentiation factor 15 expression in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I.
    Authors: Tamary H, Shalev H, Perez-Avraham G, Zoldan M, Levi I, Swinkels DW, Tanno T, Miller JL
    Blood, 2008-09-29;112(13):5241-4.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  39. Differential effects of chemotherapeutic drugs versus the MDM-2 antagonist nutlin-3 on cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in SKW6.4 lymphoblastoid B-cells.
    Authors: Barbarotto E, Corallini F, Rimondi E, Fadda R, Mischiati C, Grill V, Vaccarezza M, Celeghini C
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2008-05-15;104(2):595-605.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  40. Activation of the p53 pathway down-regulates the osteoprotegerin expression and release by vascular endothelial cells.
    Authors: Secchiero P, Corallini F, Rimondi E, Chiaruttini C, di Iasio MG, Rustighi A, Del Sal G, Zauli G
    Blood, 2007-11-13;111(3):1287-94.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  41. MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3 suppresses the proliferation and differentiation of human pre-osteoclasts through a p53-dependent pathway.
    Authors: Zauli G, Rimondi E, Corallini F, Fadda R, Capitani S, Secchiero P
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2007-10-01;22(10):1621-30.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  42. High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin.
    Authors: Tanno T, Bhanu NV, Oneal PA, Goh SH, Staker P, Lee YT, Moroney JW, Reed CH, Luban NL, Wang RH, Eling TE, Childs R, Ganz T, Leitman SF, Fucharoen S, Miller JL
    Nat. Med., 2007-08-26;13(9):1096-101.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum


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Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA
By Anonymous on 12/13/2021
Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma

Very good, reliable reasults. Samples diluted 1/20, some needed dilution 1/40 as signal was too strong for the standard curve we applied. It may be ok with just 1/20 if the full standard curve is applied

Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA
By Anonymous on 03/29/2021
Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma

Excellent kit, work very well for healthy controls and patients samples at 1:5 dilution

Human GDF-15 DuoSet ELISA
By Anonymous on 09/30/2016
Sample Tested: Skeletal muscle