Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit Linearity Competitor Comparison
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Citations (38)
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Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Assay Length
3.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (13 uL), EDTA Plasma (13 uL), Heparin Plasma (13 uL), Urine (10 uL)
4.39 pg/mL
Assay Range
23.4 - 1,500 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine)
Natural and recombinant human GDF-15
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity not tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

The Quantikine Human GDF-15 immunoassay is a 3.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure GDF-15 in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and urine. It contains CHO cell-expressed recombinant human GDF-15 and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural GDF-15 showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values of naturally occurring GDF-15.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision

Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 40 40 40
Mean 238 456 886 225 442 900
Standard Deviation 4.27 9.86 25 13.4 20.6 50.5
CV% 1.8 2.2 2.8 6 4.7 5.6


The recovery of GDF-15 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=4) 100 94-106
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 97 85-108
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 96 86-108
Serum (n=4) 98 88-107
Urine (n=4) 102 88-108


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of GDF-15 were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human GDF-15 ELISA Linearity

Data Examples

Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit Linearity Competitor Comparison

Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit Recovery Competitor Comparison

Human GDF-15 ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: GDF-15

Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. They are produced as inactive preproproteins which are then cleaved and assembled into active secreted homodimers. GDF dimers are disulfide-linked with the exception of GDF-3 and -9. GDF proteins are important during embryonic development, particularly in the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems.

Long Name:
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs:
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names:
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Assay Procedure

Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
  1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
  2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

  3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
  4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

  5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
  6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
  7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

  8. 200 µL Conjugate
  9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 1 hour on the shaker.
  10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

  11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
  12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

  13. 50 µL Stop Solution
  14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

Citations for Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

38 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Association of Extracellular Vesicle Protein Cargo with Race and Clinical Markers of Mortality
    Authors: N Noren Hoot, MH McFarland, DW Freeman, NA Mode, N Ezike, AB Zonderman, MK Evans
    Sci Rep, 2019;9(1):17582.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  2. Growth differentiation factor-15 predicts poor survival after cardiac arrest
    Authors: B Richter, T Uray, KA Krychtiuk, C Schriefl, M Lenz, A Nürnberger, SP Kastl, J Wojta, G Heinz, M Schwameis, WS Speidl
    Resuscitation, 2019;143(0):22-28.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  3. Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 is an independent marker for aggressive disease in endometrial cancer
    Authors: H Engerud, K Hope, HF Berg, KE Fasmer, IL Tangen, IS Haldorsen, J Trovik, C Krakstad
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(1):e0210585.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  4. Apomorphine rescues reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis of fibroblasts with mitochondrial disease
    Authors: A Miyauchi, T Kouga, EF Jimbo, T Matsuhashi, T Abe, T Yamagata, H Osaka
    Mitochondrion, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  5. Serum Hepcidin and GDF-15 levels as prognostic markers in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract and renal cell carcinoma
    Authors: L Traeger, I Ellermann, H Wiethoff, J Ihbe, I Gallitz, M Eveslage, R Moritz, E Herrmann, AJ Schrader, AU Steinbicke
    BMC Cancer, 2019;19(1):74.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  6. Growth differentiation factor 15 as a useful biomarker of heart failure in young patients with unrepaired congenital heart disease of left to right shunt
    Authors: Y Kagiyama, S Yatsuga, M Kinoshita, Y Koteda, S Kishimoto, Y Koga, K Suda
    J Cardiol, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  7. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) is a Biomarker of Muscle Wasting and Renal Dysfunction in Preoperative Cardiovascular Surgery Patients
    Authors: T Nakajima, I Shibasaki, T Sawaguchi, A Haruyama, H Kaneda, T Nakajima, T Hasegawa, T Arikawa, S Obi, M Sakuma, H Ogawa, S Toyoda, F Nakamura, S Abe, H Fukuda, T Inoue
    J Clin Med, 2019;8(10):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  8. Association of Biomarker Clusters With Cardiac Phenotypes and Mortality in Patients With HIV Infection
    Authors: R Scherzer, SJ Shah, E Secemsky, J Butler, C Grunfeld, MG Shlipak, PY Hsue
    Circ Heart Fail, 2018;11(4):e004312.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  9. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 as a Predictor of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Progression: A Retrospective Study
    Authors: YR Ham, CH Song, HJ Bae, JY Jeong, MK Yeo, DE Choi, KR Na, KW Lee
    Dis. Markers, 2018;2018(0):1463940.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  10. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans
    Authors: M Kleinert, C Clemmensen, KA Sjøberg, CS Carl, JF Jeppesen, JFP Wojtaszews, B Kiens, EA Richter
    Mol Metab, 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  11. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and survival of pancreatic cancer patients
    Authors: A Babic, N Schnure, NP Neupane, MM Zaman, N Rifai, MW Welch, LK Brais, DA Rubinson, V Morales-Oy, C Yuan, S Zhang, EM Poole, BM Wolpin, MH Kulke, DA Barbie, K Wong, CS Fuchs, K Ng
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 2018;9(4):145.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  12. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels and the risk of contrast induced nephropathy in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A retrospective observation study
    Authors: L Sun, X Zhou, J Jiang, X Zang, X Chen, H Li, H Cao, Q Wang
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(5):e0197609.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  13. Combination of Plasma Biomarkers and Clinical Data for the Detection of Myocardial Fibrosis or Aggravation of Heart Failure Symptoms in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Patients
    Authors: CK Wu, MM Su, YF Wu, JJ Hwang, LY Lin
    J Clin Med, 2018;7(11):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  14. GDF-15 is a better complimentary marker for risk stratification of arrhythmic death in non-ischaemic, dilated cardiomyopathy than soluble ST2
    Authors: S Stojkovic, A Kaider, L Koller, M Brekalo, J Wojta, A Diedrich, S Demyanets, T Pezawas
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  15. Dose and schedule determine distinct molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of the p53-MDM2 inhibitor HDM201
    Authors: S Jeay, S Ferretti, P Holzer, J Fuchs, EA Chapeau, M Wartmann, D Sterker, V Romanet, M Murakami, G Kerr, EY Durand, S Gaulis, M Cortes-Cro, S Ruetz, TM Stachyra, J Kallen, P Furet, J Wuerthner, N Guerreiro, E Halilovic, A Jullion, A Kauffmann, E Kuriakose, M Wiesmann, MR Jensen, F Hofmann, WR Sellers
    Cancer Res., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  16. GDF15 promotes the proliferation of cervical cancer cells by phosphorylating AKT1 and Erk1/2 through the receptor ErbB2
    Authors: S Li, YM Ma, PS Zheng, P Zhang
    J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 2018;37(1):80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  17. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels and the risk of contrast induced acute kidney injury in acute myocardial infarction patients treated invasively: A propensity-score match analysis
    Authors: L Sun, X Zhou, J Jiang, X Zang, X Chen, H Li, H Cao, Q Wang
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(3):e0194152.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  18. NF-?B regulates GDF-15 to suppress macrophage surveillance during early tumor development
    Authors: NM Ratnam, JM Peterson, EE Talbert, KJ Ladner, PV Rajasekera, CR Schmidt, ME Dillhoff, BJ Swanson, E Haverick, RD Kladney, TM Williams, GW Leone, DJ Wang, DC Guttridge
    J. Clin. Invest., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  19. GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients
    Authors: N Ban, CJ Siegfried, JB Lin, YB Shui, J Sein, W Pita-Thoma, A Sene, A Santeford, M Gordon, R Lamb, Z Dong, SC Kelly, V Cavalli, J Yoshino, RS Apte
    JCI Insight, 2017;2(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Aqueous Humor
  20. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 Is a Predictor of Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis
    Authors: L Buendgens, E Yagmur, J Bruensing, U Herbers, C Baeck, C Trautwein, A Koch, F Tacke
    Dis. Markers, 2017;2017(0):5271203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  21. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion
    Authors: Y Yang, S Lian, L Meng, L Qu, C Shou
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(1):e0169665.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  22. The efficacy of biliary and serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 for diagnosing biliary tract cancer
    Authors: M Sugimoto, T Takagi, N Konno, R Suzuki, H Asama, K Watanabe, J Nakamura, Y Waragai, H Kikuchi, M Takasumi, Y Sato, T Hikichi, H Ohira
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):9198.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  23. Mitochonic Acid 5 (MA-5) Facilitates ATP Synthase Oligomerization and Cell Survival in Various Mitochondrial Diseases
    Authors: T Matsuhashi, T Sato, SI Kanno, T Suzuki, A Matsuo, Y Oba, M Kikusato, E Ogasawara, T Kudo, K Suzuki, O Ohara, H Shimbo, F Nanto, H Yamaguchi, D Saigusa, Y Mukaiyama, A Watabe, K Kikuchi, H Shima, E Mishima, Y Akiyama, Y Oikawa, HO Hsin-Jung, Y Akiyama, C Suzuki, M Uematsu, M Ogata, N Kumagai, M Toyomizu, A Hozawa, N Mano, Y Owada, S Aiba, T Yanagisawa, Y Tomioka, S Kure, S Ito, K Nakada, KI Hayashi, H Osaka, T Abe
    EBioMedicine, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  24. Plasma levels of growth differentiation factor-15 are associated with myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting
    Authors: Zhize Yuan
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):28221.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  25. Growth differentiation factor 15 increases following oral glucose ingestion: effect of meal composition and obesity
    Authors: Marie Helene Schernthan
    Eur. J. Endocrinol, 2016;175(6):623-631.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  26. GDF15 derived from both tumor-associated macrophages and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas contributes to tumor progression via Akt and Erk pathways.
    Authors: Urakawa, Naoki, Utsunomiya, Soken, Nishio, Mari, Shigeoka, Manabu, Takase, Nobuhisa, Arai, Noriaki, Kakeji, Yoshihir, Koma, Yu-Ichir, Yokozaki, Hiroshi
    Lab Invest, 2015;95(5):491-503.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  27. Anti-tumoral effects of miR-3189-3p in glioblastoma.
    Authors: Jeansonne D, DeLuca M, Marrero L, Lassak A, Pacifici M, Wyczechowska D, Wilk A, Reiss K, Peruzzi F
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(13):8067-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  28. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) levels are associated with cardiac and renal injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.
    Authors: Kahli A, Guenancia C, Zeller M, Grosjean S, Stamboul K, Rochette L, Girard C, Vergely C
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e105759.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  29. A low-molecular-weight compound K7174 represses hepcidin: possible therapeutic strategy against anemia of chronic disease.
    Authors: Fujiwara, Tohru, Ikeda, Takashi, Nagasaka, Yuki, Okitsu, Yoko, Katsuoka, Yuna, Fukuhara, Noriko, Onishi, Yasushi, Ishizawa, Kenichi, Ichinohasama, Ryo, Tomosugi, Naohisa, Harigae, Hideo
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(9):e75568.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  30. Evidences of early senescence in multiple myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.
    Authors: Andre T, Meuleman N, Stamatopoulos B, De Bruyn C, Pieters K, Bron D, Lagneaux L
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(3):e59756.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  31. Hypoxia potentiates glioma-mediated immunosuppression.
    Authors: Wei J, Wu A, Kong LY, Wang Y, Fuller G, Fokt I, Melillo G, Priebe W, Heimberger AB
    PLoS ONE, 2012;6(1):e16195.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  32. Regulation of hepcidin expression at high altitude.
    Authors: Talbot NP, Lakhal S, Smith TG, Privat C, Nickol AH, Rivera-Ch M, Leon-Velarde F, Dorrington KL, Mole DR, Robbins PA
    Blood, 2012;119(3):857-60.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  33. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in patients with beta thalassemia major: molecular analysis with attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study as a novel method.
    Stem Cells Dev., 2012;21(11):2000-11.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Bone Marrow Fluid
  34. Growth differentiation factor 15 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes.
    Authors: Si Y, Liu X, Cheng M, Wang M, Gong Q, Yang Y, Wang T, Yang W
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(5):e19967.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  35. Modulation of hepcidin production during hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis in humans in vivo: data from the HIGHCARE project.
    Authors: Piperno A, Galimberti S, Mariani R
    Blood, 2011;117(10):2953-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  36. The relationship between insulin resistance and the cardiovascular biomarker growth differentiation factor-15 in obese patients.
    Authors: Vila G, Riedl M, Anderwald C, Resl M, Handisurya A, Clodi M, Prager G, Ludvik B, Krebs M, Luger A
    Clin. Chem., 2011;57(2):309-16.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  37. Sensitive plasma protein analysis by microparticle-based proximity ligation assays.
    Authors: Darmanis S, Nong RY, Hammond M, Gu J, Alderborn A, Vanelid J, Siegbahn A, Gustafsdottir S, Ericsson O, Landegren U, Kamali-Moghaddam M
    Mol. Cell Proteomics, 2010;9(2):327-35.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  38. Plasma hepcidin levels are elevated but responsive to erythropoietin therapy in renal disease.
    Authors: Ashby DR, Gale DP, Busbridge M, Murphy KG, Duncan ND, Cairns TD, Taube DH, Bloom SR, Tam FW, Chapman RS, Maxwell PH, Choi P
    Kidney Int., 2009;75(9):976-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma


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Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 09/13/2020
Application: Sample Tested: Serum

Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 03/14/2019
Application: Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma

Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 01/22/2017
Application: Sample Tested: extravillous trophoblasts conditioned medium

Used to measure GDF-15 concentration in first trimester extravillous trophoblasts.