Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit

(13 citations)   
  • Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    3.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (13 uL), EDTA Plasma (13 uL), Heparin Plasma (13 uL), Urine (10 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    4.39 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    23.4 - 1,500 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine)
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant human GDF-15
  • Cross-reactivity
    < 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity not tested.
  • Interference
    No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Control Available
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human GDF-15 immunoassay is a 3.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure GDF-15 in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and urine. It contains CHO cell-expressed recombinant human GDF-15 and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural GDF-15 showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values of naturally occurring GDF-15.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation4.279.862513.420.650.5


The recovery of GDF-15 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=4) 100 94-106
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 97 85-108
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 96 86-108
Serum (n=4) 98 88-107
Urine (n=4) 102 88-108
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of GDF-15 were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: GDF-15
Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. They are produced as inactive preproproteins which are then cleaved and assembled into active secreted homodimers. GDF dimers are disulfide-linked with the exception of GDF-3 and -9. GDF proteins are important during embryonic development, particularly in the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems.
    • Long Name
      Growth Differentiation Factor 15
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat);
    • Alternate Names
      GDF15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
    6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

    8. 200 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 1 hour on the shaker.
    10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

    11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
    12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    13. 50 µL Stop Solution
    14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    Showing Results 1 - 10 of 13
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    Sample Type
    1. Plasma levels of growth differentiation factor-15 are associated with myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting
      Authors: Zhize Yuan
      Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):28221.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    2. Anti-tumoral effects of miR-3189-3p in glioblastoma.
      Authors: Jeansonne D, DeLuca M, Marrero L, Lassak A, Pacifici M, Wyczechowska D, Wilk A, Reiss K, Peruzzi F
      J Biol Chem, 2015;290(13):8067-80.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    3. GDF15 derived from both tumor-associated macrophages and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas contributes to tumor progression via Akt and Erk pathways.
      Authors: Urakawa, Naoki, Utsunomiya, Soken, Nishio, Mari, Shigeoka, Manabu, Takase, Nobuhisa, Arai, Noriaki, Kakeji, Yoshihir, Koma, Yu-Ichir, Yokozaki, Hiroshi
      Lab Invest, 2015;95(5):491-503.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    4. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) levels are associated with cardiac and renal injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.
      Authors: Kahli A, Guenancia C, Zeller M, Grosjean S, Stamboul K, Rochette L, Girard C, Vergely C
      PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e105759.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    5. A low-molecular-weight compound K7174 represses hepcidin: possible therapeutic strategy against anemia of chronic disease.
      Authors: Fujiwara, Tohru, Ikeda, Takashi, Nagasaka, Yuki, Okitsu, Yoko, Katsuoka, Yuna, Fukuhara, Noriko, Onishi, Yasushi, Ishizawa, Kenichi, Ichinohasama, Ryo, Tomosugi, Naohisa, Harigae, Hideo
      PLoS ONE, 2013;8(9):e75568.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    6. Hypoxia potentiates glioma-mediated immunosuppression.
      Authors: Wei J, Wu A, Kong LY, Wang Y, Fuller G, Fokt I, Melillo G, Priebe W, Heimberger AB
      PLoS ONE, 2012;6(1):e16195.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    7. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in patients with beta thalassemia major: molecular analysis with attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study as a novel method.
      Stem Cells Dev., 2012;21(11):2000-11.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Bone Marrow Plasma
    8. Regulation of hepcidin expression at high altitude.
      Authors: Talbot NP, Lakhal S, Smith TG, Privat C, Nickol AH, Rivera-Ch M, Leon-Velarde F, Dorrington KL, Mole DR, Robbins PA
      Blood, 2012;119(3):857-60.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    9. Growth differentiation factor 15 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes.
      Authors: Si Y, Liu X, Cheng M, Wang M, Gong Q, Yang Y, Wang T, Yang W
      PLoS ONE, 2011;6(5):e19967.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    10. Modulation of hepcidin production during hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis in humans in vivo: data from the HIGHCARE project.
      Authors: Piperno A, Galimberti S, Mariani R
      Blood, 2011;117(10):2953-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    11. The relationship between insulin resistance and the cardiovascular biomarker growth differentiation factor-15 in obese patients.
      Authors: Vila G, Riedl M, Anderwald C, Resl M, Handisurya A, Clodi M, Prager G, Ludvik B, Krebs M, Luger A
      Clin. Chem., 2011;57(2):309-16.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    12. Sensitive plasma protein analysis by microparticle-based proximity ligation assays.
      Authors: Darmanis S, Nong RY, Hammond M, Gu J, Alderborn A, Vanelid J, Siegbahn A, Gustafsdottir S, Ericsson O, Landegren U, Kamali-Moghaddam M
      Mol. Cell Proteomics, 2010;9(2):327-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    13. Plasma hepcidin levels are elevated but responsive to erythropoietin therapy in renal disease.
      Authors: Ashby DR, Gale DP, Busbridge M, Murphy KG, Duncan ND, Cairns TD, Taube DH, Bloom SR, Tam FW, Chapman RS, Maxwell PH, Choi P
      Kidney Int., 2009;75(9):976-81.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
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    Quantikine Wash Buffer 1

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