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OR

Human GITR/TNFRSF18 APC‑conjugated Antibody

  • Specificity
    Detects human GITR in direct ELISAs and Western blots. Does not cross-react with recombinant human (rh) 4‑1BB, recombinant mouse (rm) 4‑1BB, rhCD27, rmCD27, rhCD30, rmCD30, rhCD40, rmCD40, rhDR3, rhDR6, rhEDAR, rmEDAR, rhFas, rmFAS, rmGITR, rhHVEM, rhLymphotoxin R beta, rmLymphotoxin R beta, rhNGF R, rhOPG, rmOPG, rhRANK, rmRANK, rhTAJ, rhTNF RI, rmTNF RI, rhTNF RII, or rmTNF RII.
  • Source
    Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 110416
  • Purification
    Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human GITR/TNFRSF18
    Gln26-Glu161 (Thr43Ala)
    Accession # Q9Y5U5
  • Label
    Allophycocyanin
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Flow Cytometry
    10 µL/106 cells
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of GITR/TNFRSF18 in Human Blood CD4+ Lymphocytes by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes treated with PHA for 5 days were stained with Mouse Anti-Human GITR/TNFRSF18 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB689A, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002A, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
  • Stability & Storage
    Protect from light. Do not freeze.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Background: GITR/TNFRSF18

GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor, also named AITR, activation-inducible TNF R family member), is a 228 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane protein belonging to the TNF R family and has been designated TNFRSF18. The GITR cytoplasmic domain has striking homology with the cytoplasmic domain of 4-1BB and CD27. Human GITR shares 55% homology with murine GITR. GITR is expressed at low levels in peripheral blood T cells, bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. In contrast to mouse GITR, expression of human GITR is not induced by treatment with dexamethasone, but is up‑regulated by antigen stimulation or by treatment with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, or PMA plus ionomycin. Human GITR ligand was identified from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and is a 177 aa polypeptide belonging to the TNF superfamily (TNFSF18). Ligation of GITR can activate NF-kappa B through TRAF2, and protect T cells from TCR activation-induced cell death. It has been proposed that GITR ligand and GITR may modulate T lymphocyte functions.

  • References:
    1. Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:6216.
    2. Kwon, B. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:6056.
    3. Gurney, A.L. et al. (1999) Current Biology 9:215.
    4. Kwon, B. et al. (1999) Current Opinion in Immunology 11:340.
  • Long Name:
    Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    21936 (Human); 8784 (Human); 500598 (Rat);
  • Alternate Names:
    AITR; CD357; TNFRSF18; Activation-inducible TNFR family receptor; AITRTNF receptor superfamily activation-inducible protein; CD357 antigen; GITR-D; GITRtumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18; Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 18
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

Showing Results 1 - 3 of 3
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Increase of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T-cells in the liver of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Authors: Yang XH, Yamagiwa S, Ichida T, Matsuda Y, Sugahara S, Watanabe H, Sato Y, Abo T, Horwitz DA, Aoyagi Y
    J. Hepatol., 2006;45(2):254-62.
    Species: Human
    Application: Flow Cytometry,
  2. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell frequency in HER-2/neu (HER)-positive and HER-negative advanced-stage breast cancer patients.
    Authors: Perez SA, Karamouzis MV, Skarlos DV, Ardavanis A, Sotiriadou NN, Iliopoulou EG, Salagianni ML, Orphanos G, Baxevanis CN, Rigatos G, Papamichail M
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2007;13(9):2714-21.
    Species: Human
    Application: Flow Cytometry,
  3. Expression of human GITRL on myeloid dendritic cells enhances their immunostimulatory function but does not abrogate the suppressive effect of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
    Authors: Tuyaerts S, Van Meirvenne S, Bonehill A, Heirman C, Corthals J, Waldmann H, Breckpot K, Thielemans K, Aerts JL
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2007;82(1):93-105.
    Species: Human
    Application: Flow Cytometry,

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