Human IFN-alpha ELISA Kit

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Newer Version Available: DFNAS0
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Product Details
Citations (20)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (2)

Human IFN-alpha ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Length
3.25 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (100 uL)
12.5 pg/mL
Assay Range
156.0 - 5,000 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates)12.5 - 500 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates),
Human IFN-alpha
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: IFN-alpha

There are 3 major classes of interferons (IFNs): Type I, Type II and Type III. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha ), along with IFN-beta, IFN-δ, IFN-epsilon, IFN-kappa, IFN-omega and IFN-tau are all Type I IFNs (1). The sole type II IFN is IFN-gamma. Type III IFNs include IFN-lambda 1, IFN-lambda 2, IFN-lambda 3 and IFN-lambda 4 (2). As a part of the innate immune response, Type I IFNs are rapidly induced in response to viral nucleic acids such as double stranded DNA or RNA (dsDNA, dsRNA) and single stranded RNA (ssRNA), viral glycoproteins, microbial cytosinephosphate-guanosine (CpG) DNA, DNA damage, and chromosomal instability (3,4). 

IFN-alpha subtypes are well described (5-9). There are 15 human IFN-alpha subtypes with 80% amino acid identity (10). The number of IFN-alpha subtypes varies by species with 6 equine subtypes, 17 porcine subtypes, 14 bovine subtypes, and 9 canine subtypes known currently. Human IFN-alpha subtypes include: IFN-alpha 1a, IFN-alpha 1b, IFN-alpha 2a, IFN-alpha 2b, IFN-alpha 4a, IFN-alpha 4b, IFN-alpha 5, IFN-alpha 6 IFN-alpha 7, IFN-alpha 8, IFN-alpha 10, IFN-alpha 14, IFN-alpha 16, IFN-alpha 17, and IFN-alpha 21. Although there is one known heterodimeric IFN-alpha receptor (IFN-alpha R, described below), each IFN-alpha subtype has been correlated with differing biological activities (7). Variability in biological responses can be attributed to differences in binding affinity and duration, receptor density, feedback responses and intracellular characteristics (11). IFN-alpha responses have been described as robust, especially in the context of viral infection responsiveness by all cells or tunable in a cell type specific manner. 
IFN-alpha signaling is well characterized (2, 5,11,12,13). IFN-alpha is a ligand for IFN alpha R, which includes two subunits IFN alpha R1 and IFN alpha R2. IFN-alpha ligand binding to the ubiquitously expressed IFN alpha R1 triggers a conformational change which allows for the heterodimerization of IFN alpha R1 and IFN alpha R2 (10). Heterodimerization results in the cross phosphorylation of the Janus-activated Kinase 1 (JAK1) on IFN alpha R2 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) on IFN alpha R1 respectively, as well as the intracellular domain of IFN alpha R1 and IFN alpha 2 (9). The transcription factors Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and 2 are subsequently recruited to IFN alpha R via their Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and phosphorylated. In the canonical IFN-alpha signaling pathway, phosphoSTAT1/STAT2 heterodimers associate with Interferon Regulatory Factor 9 (IRF9) to form Interferon Stimulated Gene Factor 3 (ISGF3), which translocates into the nucleus to bind to gamma-activated sequences (GASs) or interferon- stimulated response elements (ISREs). This stimulates the transcription of interferonstimulated genes (ISGs). STAT 2 homodimers and monomers can also associate with IRF-9 to form ISGF3-like complex, which also binds to ISRE to stimulate the transcription of ISGs (9). 
Although IFN-alpha is most commonly associated with viral infections, it has been associated with other pathological events. Type 1 interferons represent a standard of care for suppressing Hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) (14). However, it has been associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anhedonia, anxiety and cognitive impairment (15). The role of IFN-alpha in cancer is complex as well. For example, in the context of inflammatory breast cancer, IFN-alpha is upregulated. Although IFN-alpha has been correlated with cellular senescence and apoptosis, some subtypes have been correlated with increased cellular migration and drug resistance.

Long Name:
Interferon alpha
Entrez Gene IDs:
3440 (Human)
Alternate Names:
IFNA; IFNA2; IFNA2b; IFNalpha; IFN-alpha; IFN-alphaA; INFA2; interferon alpha 2; LeIF D

Citations for Human IFN-alpha ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

20 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Type I interferon/STAT1 signaling regulates UBE2M-mediated antiviral innate immunity in a negative feedback manner
    Authors: X Kong, X Lu, S Wang, J Hao, D Guo, H Wu, Y Jiang, Y Sun, J Wang, G Zhang, Z Cai
    Cell Reports, 2023-01-19;42(1):112002.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  2. Immune responses in Omicron SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection in vaccinated adults
    Authors: H Kared, AS Wolf, A Alirezayla, A Ravussin, G Solum, TT Tran, F Lund-Johan, JT Vaage, LS Nissen-Mey, UC Nygaard, O Hungnes, AH Robertson, LM Næss, L Trogstad, P Magnus, LA Munthe, S Mjaaland
    Nature Communications, 2022-07-18;13(1):4165.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  3. Influenza infection directly alters innate IL-23 and IL-12p70 and subsequent IL-17A and IFN-? responses to pneumococcus in vitro in human monocytes
    Authors: ST Loughran, PA Power, PT Maguire, SL McQuaid, PJ Buchanan, I Jonsdottir, RW Newman, R Harvey, PA Johnson
    PLoS ONE, 2018-09-07;13(9):e0203521.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  4. Intracellular DNA sensing pathway of cGAS-cGAMP is decreased in human newborns and young children
    Authors: ZS Wang, YL Liu, N Mi, DY Duan
    Mol. Immunol., 2017-04-13;87(0):76-85.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
  5. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Display and Shed B Cell Maturation Antigen upon TLR Engagement
    Authors: E Schuh, A Musumeci, FS Thaler, S Laurent, JW Ellwart, R Hohlfeld, A Krug, E Meinl
    J. Immunol, 2017-03-10;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  6. TLR7 Agonist GS-9620 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Acute HIV-1 Infection in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
    Authors: Stephen R Yant
    Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2016-12-27;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  7. Rabex-5 is a lenalidomide target molecule that negatively regulates TLR-induced type 1 IFN production
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2016-09-06;113(38):10625-10630.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  8. Carcinoma-astrocyte gap junctions promote brain metastasis by cGAMP transfer
    Nature, 2016-05-18;533(7604):493-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and myeloid cells differently contribute to BAFF over-expression during primary HIV infection.
    Authors: Borhis G, Burelout C, Chaoul N, Smith N, Goujard C, Meyer L, Paul S, Saoudin H, Hosmalin A, Gilbert C, Herbeuval J, Richard Y
    AIDS, 2016-01-28;30(0):365-376.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  10. Set7 facilitates hepatitis C virus replication via enzymatic activity-dependent attenuation of the IFN-related pathway.
    Authors: Han T, Wan Y, Wang J, Zhao P, Yuan Y, Wang L, She Y, Broering R, Lu M, Ye L, Zhu Y
    J Immunol, 2015-02-13;194(6):2757-68.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  11. Natural killer cells can inhibit the transmission of human cytomegalovirus in cell culture by using mechanisms from innate and adaptive immune responses.
    Authors: Wu Z, Sinzger C, Reichel J, Just M, Mertens T
    J Virol, 2014-12-24;89(5):2906-17.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  12. PIKfyve, a class III lipid kinase, is required for TLR-induced type I IFN production via modulation of ATF3.
    Authors: Cai, Xinming, Xu, Yongyao, Kim, You-Me, Loureiro, Joseph, Huang, Qian
    J Immunol, 2014-03-05;192(7):3383-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  13. Use of monitoring levels of soluble forms of cytokeratin 18 in the urine of patients with superficial bladder cancer following intravesical Ad-IFNalpha/Syn3 treatment in a phase l study.
    Authors: Benedict W, Fisher M, Zhang X, Yang Z, Munsell M, Dinney C
    Cancer Gene Ther, 2014-02-07;21(3):91-4.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  14. Buffering capacity and size of siRNA polyplexes influence cytokine levels.
    Authors: Leng, Qixin, Chou, Szu-Ting, Scaria, Puthuppa, Woodle, Martin C, Mixson, A James
    Mol Ther, 2012-10-02;20(12):2282-90.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  15. Potent adjuvanticity of a pure TLR7-agonistic imidazoquinoline dendrimer.
    Authors: Shukla N, Salunke D, Balakrishna R, Mutz C, Malladi S, David S
    PLoS ONE, 2012-08-28;7(8):e43612.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  16. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides induces an apoptotic pathway in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.
    Authors: Liang X, Moseman EA, Farrar MA
    Blood, 2010-03-25;115(24):5041-52.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  17. Direct and indirect impairment of human dendritic cell function by virulent Francisella tularensis Schu S4.
    Authors: Chase JC, Celli J, Bosio CM
    Infect. Immun., 2008-11-03;77(1):180-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  18. CpG oligonucleotides induce strong humoral but only weak CD4+ T cell responses to protein antigens in rhesus macaques in vivo.
    Authors: Hartmann G, Marschner A, Viveros PR, Stahl-Hennig C, Eisenblatter M, Suh YS, Endres S, Tenner-Racz K, Uberla K, Racz P, Steinman RM, Ignatius R
    Vaccine, 2005-05-09;23(25):3310-7.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  19. APC-independent activation of NK cells by the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA.
    Authors: Schmidt KN, Leung B, Kwong M, Zarember KA, Satyal S, Navas TA, Wang F, Godowski PJ
    J. Immunol., 2004-01-01;172(1):138-43.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  20. Autocrine type I IFN and contact with endothelium promote the presentation of influenza A virus by monocyte-derived APC.
    Authors: Qu C, Moran TM, Randolph GJ
    J. Immunol., 2003-01-15;170(2):1010-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates


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Human IFN-alpha ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 07/11/2019
Sample Tested: BMEC

Human IFN-alpha ELISA Kit
By Jeff Pimentel on 03/27/2018
Sample Tested: Cell Culture Supernates