Human IL-33 Antibody

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Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑33 and Neutralization by Human IL‑33 Antibody.
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Product Details
Citations (25)
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Reviews (6)

Human IL-33 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human IL-33 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich ELISAs, less than 0.05% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) IL‑33 is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
E. coli-derived recombinant human IL-33
Accession # O95760
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human IL‑33 (Catalog # 3625-IL)
5-15 µg/mL
See below
Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC
3-25 µg/mL
See below
5-15 µg/mL
Immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with PMA and calcium ionomycin

Human IL-33 Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.2-0.8 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Detection Reagent: Human IL‑33 Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF3625)

Standard: Recombinant Human IL-33 Protein (Catalog # 3625-IL)

Measured by its ability to neutralize IL‑33-induced proliferation in the D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.75-3.0 µg/mL in the presence of 1 ng/mL Recombinant Human IL‑33 and sub-optimal amounts of Mouse CD3 epsilon Monoclonal Antibody.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Neutralization Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑33 and Neutralization by Human IL‑33 Antibody. View Larger

Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑33 and Neutralization by Human IL‑33 Antibody. In the presence of sub-optimal amounts of Hamster Anti-Mouse CD3e Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB484), Recom-binant Human IL-33 (Catalog # 3625-IL) stimulates proliferation in the D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human IL-33 (1 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human IL-33 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3625). The ND50 is typically 0.75-3.0 µg/mL.

Immunohistochemistry IL-33 antibody in Human Tonsil by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P). View Larger

IL‑33 in Human Tonsil. IL-33 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil using Goat Anti-Human IL-33 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3625) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to nuclei. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC Compatible IL-33 antibody in Human Tonsil Using Dual RNAscope<sup>®</sup>ISH and IHC. View Larger

IL-33 in Human Tonsil Using Dual RNAscope®ISH and IHC. IL-33 mRNA was detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of human tonsil probed with ACD RNAScope®Probe (Catalog # 400111) and stained using ACD RNAscope®2.5 HD Detection Reagents-Red (top image, Catalog # 32260). Adjacent tissue section was processed for immunohistochemistry using R&D Systems Goat Anti-Human IL-33 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3625) at 3 ug/mL with overnight incubation at 4 °C followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # VC004) and DAB chromogen (lower image, yellow-brown). Tissues were counterstained with hematoxylin (blue).

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: IL-33

IL-33, also known as NF-HEV and DVS 27, is a 30 kDa proinflammatory protein that may also regulate gene transcription (1‑3). DVS 27 was identifed as a gene that is up‑regulated in vasospastic cerebral arteries (1). NF-HEV was described as a nuclear factor that is preferentially expressed in the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules relative to endothelial cells from other tissues (2). IL-33 was identified based on sequence and structural homology with IL-1 family cytokines (3). DVS 27, NF-HEV, and IL-33 share 100% amino acid sequence identity. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in smooth muscle and airway epithelia. It is up‑regulated in arterial smooth muscle, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes following IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta stimulation (1, 3). Similar to IL-1, IL-33 can be cleaved in vitro by caspase-1, generating an N-terminal fragment that is slightly shorter than the C-terminal fragment (3, 4). The N-terminal portion of full length IL-33 contains a predicted bipartite nuclear localization sequence and a homeodomain-like helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain. By immunofluorescence, full length IL-33 localizes to the nucleus in HUVECs and transfectants (2). The C-terminal fragment, corresponding to mature IL-33, binds and triggers signaling through mast cell IL-1 R4/ST2L, a longtime orphan receptor involved in the augmentation of Th2 cell responses (3, 5-7). A ternary signaling complex is formed by the subsequent association of IL-33 and ST2L with IL-1R AcP (8). Stimulation of Th2 polarized lymphocytes with mature IL-33 in vitro induces IL-5 and IL-13 secretion (3). In vivo administration of mature IL-33 promotes increased production of IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgA, as well as splenomegaly and inflammatory infiltration of mucosal tissues (3). Full length and mature human IL-33 share 52‑58% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-33. Human IL-33 shares less than 20% aa sequence identity with other IL-1 family proteins.

  1. Onda, H. et al. (1999) J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 19:1279.
  2. Baekkevold, E.S. et al. (2003) Am. J. Pathol. 163:69.
  3. Schmitz, J. et al. (2005) Immunity 23:479.
  4. Black, R.A. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:5323.
  5. Xu, D. et al. (1998) J. Exp. Med. 187:787.
  6. Lohning, M. et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:6930.
  7. Dinarello, C.A. (2005) Immunity 23:461.
  8. Chackerian, A.A. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 179:2551.
Long Name
Interleukin 33
Entrez Gene IDs
90865 (Human); 77125 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
C9orf26; C9orf26chromosome 9 open reading frame 26 (NF-HEV); DKFZp586H0523; DVS27; DVS27-related protein; IL1F11; IL-1F11; IL33; IL-33; interleukin 33; Interleukin-1 family member 11; interleukin-33; NFHEV; NF-HEV; NF-HEVNFEHEV; Nuclear factor from high endothelial venules; RP11-575C20.2

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Citations for Human IL-33 Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

25 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Symbiotic microbiome Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts IL-33 production in allergic nasal epithelium via limiting the cellular necroptosis
    Authors: Jeon, YJ;Gil, CH;Won, J;Jo, A;Kim, HJ;
    BMC microbiology
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Nasal Lavage Fluid
    Applications: Western Blot
  2. Organoids capture tissue-specific innate lymphoid cell development in mice and humans
    Authors: GM Jowett, E Read, LB Roberts, D Coman, M Vilà Gonzá, T Zabinski, U Niazi, R Reis, TJ Trieu, D Danovi, E Gentleman, L Vallier, MA Curtis, GM Lord, JF Neves
    Cell Reports, 2022-08-30;40(9):111281.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  3. Nuclear IL-33 regulates cytokinesis and cell motility in normal human epidermal keratinocytes
    Authors: H Tsuda, SI Tominaga, M Ohtsuki, M Komine
    Journal of dermatological science, 2022-01-25;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  4. Interleukin-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cell expansion and modulates endometriosis
    Authors: JE Miller, H Lingegowda, LK Symons, O Bougie, SL Young, BA Lessey, M Koti, C Tayade
    JCI Insight, 2021-12-08;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IF
  5. Pilot Study of Anti-Th2 Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Breast Cancer-Related Upper Extremity Lymphedema
    Authors: BJ Mehrara, HJ Park, RP Kataru, J Bromberg, M Coriddi, JE Baik, J Shin, C Li, MR Cavalli, EM Encarnacio, M Lee, KJ Van Zee, E Riedel, JH Dayan
    Biology, 2021-09-18;10(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  6. The impact of airborne endotoxin exposure on rheumatoid arthritis-related joint damage, autoantigen expression, autoimmunity, and lung disease
    Authors: TR Mikuls, R Gaurav, GM Thiele, BR England, MG Wolfe, BP Shaw, KL Bailey, TA Wyatt, AJ Nelson, MJ Duryee, CD Hunter, D Wang, DJ Romberger, DP Ascherman, JA Poole
    International immunopharmacology, 2021-08-27;100(0):108069.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  7. PPAR? drives IL-33-dependent ILC2 pro-tumoral functions
    Authors: G Ercolano, A Gomez-Cade, N Dumauthioz, G Vanoni, M Kreutzfeld, T Wyss, L Michalik, R Loyon, A Ianaro, PC Ho, C Borg, M Kopf, D Merkler, P Krebs, P Romero, S Trabanelli, C Jandus
    Nature Communications, 2021-05-05;12(1):2538.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  8. Symbiotic microbiome Staphylococcus aureus from human nasal mucus modulates IL-33-mediated type 2 immune responses in allergic nasal mucosa
    Authors: YJ Jeon, CH Gil, J Won, A Jo, HJ Kim
    BMC Microbiol, 2020-10-07;20(1):301.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  9. High level of interleukin-33 in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts correlates with good prognosis and suppressed migration in cholangiocarcinoma
    Authors: S Yangngam, S Thongchot, A Pongpaibul, K Vaeteewoot, S Pinlaor, P Thuwajit, S Okada, MA Hermoso, C Thuwajit
    J Cancer, 2020-09-23;11(22):6571-6581.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC, Western Blot
  10. ILC2s amplify PD-1 blockade by activating tissue-specific cancer immunity
    Authors: JA Moral, J Leung, LA Rojas, J Ruan, J Zhao, Z Sethna, A Ramnarain, B Gasmi, M Gururajan, D Redmond, G Askan, U Bhanot, E Elyada, Y Park, DA Tuveson, M Gönen, SD Leach, JD Wolchok, RP DeMatteo, T Merghoub, VP Balachandr
    Nature, 2020-02-19;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  11. IL-33/ST2 axis promotes glioblastoma cell invasion by accumulating tenascin-C
    Authors: JF Zhang, T Tao, K Wang, GX Zhang, Y Yan, HR Lin, Y Li, MW Guan, JJ Yu, XD Wang
    Sci Rep, 2019-12-30;9(1):20276.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  12. Identification of TNFR2 and IL-33 as therapeutic targets in localized fibrosis
    Authors: D Izadi, TB Layton, L Williams, F McCann, M Cabrita, AI Espirito S, W Xie, M Fritzsche, H Colin-York, M Feldmann, KS Midwood, J Nanchahal
    Sci Adv, 2019-12-04;5(12):eaay0370.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  13. The reciprocal interaction between tumor cells and activated fibroblasts mediated by TNF-alpha/IL-33/ST2L signaling promotes gastric cancer metastasis
    Authors: Q Zhou, X Wu, X Wang, Z Yu, T Pan, Z Li, X Chang, Z Jin, J Li, Z Zhu, B Liu, L Su
    Oncogene, 2019-10-28;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  14. IL-33 drives group 2 innate lymphoid cell-mediated protection during Clostridium difficile infection
    Authors: AL Frisbee, MM Saleh, MK Young, JL Leslie, ME Simpson, MM Abhyankar, CA Cowardin, JZ Ma, P Pramoonjag, SD Turner, AP Liou, EL Buonomo, WA Petri
    Nat Commun, 2019-06-20;10(1):2712.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  15. Cellular and clinicopathological features of the IL-33/ST2 axis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas
    Authors: G Cui, J Ren, G Xu, Z Li, W Zheng, A Yuan
    Cancer Cell Int., 2018-12-11;18(0):203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  16. Dysregulated invertebrate tropomyosin-dectin-1 interaction confers susceptibility to allergic diseases
    Authors: N Gour, S Lajoie, U Smole, M White, D Hu, P Goddard, S Huntsman, C Eng, A Mak, S Oh, JH Kim, A Sharma, S Plante, IH Salem, Y Resch, X Xiao, N Yao, A Singh, S Vrtala, J Chakir, EG Burchard, AP Lane, M Wills-Karp
    Sci Immunol, 2018-02-23;3(20):.
    Species: Human, Mouse
    Sample Types: BALF, Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: ELISA Capture
  17. Interleukin-33 and RANK-L Interplay in the Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to Periodontitis
    PLoS ONE, 2016-12-19;11(12):e0168080.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  18. TLR2 Activation Limits Rhinovirus-Stimulated CXCL-10 by Attenuating IRAK-1-Dependent IL-33 Receptor Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
    J Immunol, 2016-08-08;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  19. IL-33 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms.
    Authors: Mager L, Riether C, Schurch C, Banz Y, Wasmer M, Stuber R, Theocharides A, Li X, Xia Y, Saito H, Nakae S, Baerlocher G, Manz M, McCoy K, Macpherson A, Ochsenbein A, Beutler B, Krebs P
    J Clin Invest, 2015-05-26;125(7):2579-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  20. Epidermal Expression and Regulation of Interleukin-33 during Homeostasis and Inflammation: Strong Species Differences.
    Authors: Sundnes O, Pietka W, Loos T, Sponheim J, Rankin A, Pflanz S, Bertelsen V, Sitek J, Hol J, Haraldsen G, Khnykin D
    J Invest Dermatol, 2015-03-04;135(7):1771-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  21. The role of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in human nasal epithelium with allergic rhinitis.
    Authors: Kamekura R, Kojima T, Takano K, Go M, Sawada N, Himi T
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2012-02-01;42(2):218-28.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  22. Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-33 receptors (sST2 and ST2L) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Hong YS, Moon SJ, Moon S, Joo YB, Joo Y, Jeon CH, Jeon C, Cho ML, Ju JH, Oh HJ, Heo YJ, Heo Y, Park SH, Kim HY, Min JK
    J Korean Med Sci, 2011-09-01;26(9):1132-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Synovial Fluid, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ELISA Development, IHC-P
  23. The immune-modulating cytokine and endogenous Alarmin interleukin-33 is upregulated in skin exposed to inflammatory UVB radiation.
    Authors: Byrne SN, Beaugie C, O'Sullivan C, Leighton S, Halliday GM
    Am. J. Pathol., 2011-05-13;179(1):211-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-Fr
  24. Expression of interleukin 1-like cytokine interleukin 33 and its receptor complex (ST2L and IL1RAcP) in human pancreatic myofibroblasts.
    Authors: Nishida A, Andoh A, Imaeda H, Inatomi O, Shiomi H, Fujiyama Y
    Gut, 2009-12-08;59(4):531-41.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P, Western Blot
  25. Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis.
    Authors: Palmer G, Talabot-Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Toy D, Seemayer CA, Viatte S, Finckh A, Smith DE, Gabay C
    Arthritis Rheum., 2009-03-01;60(3):738-49.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P


  1. Does the Human IL-33 Antibody, Catalog # AF3625, detect full length IL-33 or the cleaved forms?

    • The immunogen sequence that this antibody recognizes is Ser112-Thr270 from Accession # O95760. This seqeunce corresponds to the cleaved form and is included in the full length sequence. Therefore, we would expect that this antibody detects both the full length and cleaved forms.

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Isotype Controls

Reconstitution Buffers

Secondary Antibodies

Goat IgG (H+L) Antibody


Reviews for Human IL-33 Antibody

Average Rating: 4.8 (Based on 6 Reviews)

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Human IL-33 Antibody
By Anonymous on 07/25/2023
Application: ICC/IF Sample Tested: Aorta tissue Species: Human

Human IL-33 Antibody
By Anonymous on 06/09/2020
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma Species: Human

We used this antibody in an in-house ELISA along with mAb (3625) and protein (3625-IL-010) to quantify IL-33 in human serum and plasma. This combination could not detect IL-33 in our samples but generated a good standard curve.

Human IL-33 Antibody
By Anonymous on 02/26/2019
Application: ICC/IF Sample Tested: BRONCHUS Species: Human

Staining was done on human airways after citrate antigen retrieval. OCT sections were used

Human IL-33 Antibody
By Stephanie Zandee on 03/27/2018
Application: IHC Sample Tested: Adult brain Species: Human

Published in
Used at 10ug/ml.
Briefly, frozen brain sections were fixed in 4% PFA
(Fisher Scientific), followed by antigen retrieval using heating in acid
citric buffer (Vector, Burlingame, CA, USA). Endogenous avidin-biotin was blocked for 15 min (Vector).
Sections were incubated with 10% horse serum in PBS (Biosera, Boussens, France) and Fc Receptor
Blocking Solution was added (Human TruStain FcX Biolegend,
London, UK). Primary antibodies were added overnight at 4 °C.
IL-33 was detected with donkey anti-goat-biotin (ab6578,
Abcam), followed by streptavidin-HRP and visualised with DAB. Section was counterstained with Hematoxylin.

Human IL-33 Antibody
By Anonymous on 11/09/2017
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma Species: Human

AF3625 was used as both the capture and the detection antibody for the sandwich ELISA for IL-33. The immunoassay standard was 3625-IL. Assay had sensitivity of ~1pg/ml. Many healthy human samples were not detectable.

Human IL-33 Antibody
By Anonymous on 10/18/2016
Application: ICC/IF Sample Tested: Adult lung Species: Human