|Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑34 and Neutralization by Human IL‑34 Antibody. Recombinant Human IL‑34 (Catalog # 5265-IL) stimulates proliferation in human peripheral blood monocytes in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human IL‑34 (10 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Sheep Anti-Human IL‑34 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5265). The ND50 is typically 0.035‑0.175 µg/mL.|
|Detection of Human IL‑34 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of human brain cortex tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Human IL‑34 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5265) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016). A specific band was detected for IL‑34 at approximately 45 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
Interleukin 34 (IL-34; also known as uncharacterized protein C16orf77) is secreted as a homodimer consisting of 39 kDa monomers (1). It belongs to no known cytokine family. Human IL-34 is synthesized as a 242 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 20 aa signal sequence and a 222 aa mature chain. The mature chain contains one potential site of N-linked glycosylation. Human IL-34 is 71% identical to mouse IL-34 on the amino acid level (1). IL-34 is expressed in various tissues, including the heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, testes, ovary, small intestine, prostate, and colon, and is most abundant in the spleen (1). The receptor for IL-34 is colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) (1). IL-34 stimulates monocyte proliferation (1). In functional studies, IL-34, like CSF-1, the other ligand for CSF-1R, stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) in human monocytes (1). In addition, IL-34 promoted the formation of the colony-forming unit-macrophage (CFU-M), a macrophage progenitor, in human bone marrow cultures (1).
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