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Recombinant Human IL-2 Protein

  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using CTLL‑2 mouse cytotoxic T cells. Gearing, A.J.H. and C.B. Bird (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, A Practical Approach. Clemens, M.J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 295. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.05-0.25 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala21-Thr153, with an N-terminal Met
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Met
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    15 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    13 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
202-IL
 
202-IL/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 100 mM Acetic Acid containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 100 mM Acetic Acid.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Human IL-2 (Catalog # 202-IL) stimulates cell proliferation of the CTLL-2 mouse cytotoxic T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.05-0.25 ng/mL.
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 13 kDa.
Background: IL-2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a O-glycosylated, four alpha -helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen-activated T cells. It is expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, gamma δ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils (1-3). Mature human IL-2 shares 56% and 66% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-2, respectively. Human and mouse IL-2 exhibit cross-species activity (4). The receptor for IL-2 consists of three subunits that are present on the cell surface in varying preformed complexes (5-7). The 55 kDa IL-2 R alpha is specific for IL-2 and binds with low affinity. The 75 kDa IL-2 R beta, which is also a component of the IL-15 receptor, binds IL-2 with intermediate affinity. The 64 kDa common gamma chain gamma c/IL-2 R gamma, which is shared with the receptors for IL-4, -7, -9, -15, and -21, does not independently interact with IL-2. Upon ligand binding, signal transduction is performed by both IL-2 R beta and gamma c. IL-2 is best known for its autocrine and paracrine activity on T cells. It drives resting T cells to proliferate and induces IL-2 and IL-2 R alpha synthesis (1, 2). It contributes to T cell homeostasis by promoting the Fas-induced death of naïve CD4+ T cells but not activated CD4+ memory lymphocytes (8). IL-2 plays a central role in the expansion and maintenance of regulatory T cells, although it inhibits the development of Th17 polarized cells (9-11). Thus, IL-2 may be a key cytokine in the natural suppression of autoimmunity (12, 13).

  • References:
    1. Ma, A. et al. (2006) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 24:657.
    2. Gaffen, S.L. and K.D. Liu (2004) Cytokine 28:109.
    3. Taniguchi, T. et al. (1983) Nature 302:305.
    4. Mosmann, T.R. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 138:1813.
    5. Liparoto, S.F. et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41:2543.
    6. Wang, X. et al. (2005) Science 310:1159.
    7. Bodnar, A. et al. (2008) Immunol. Lett. 116:117.
    8. Jaleco, S. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:61.
    9. Malek, T.R. (2003) J. Leukoc. Biol. 74:961.
    10. Laurence, A. et al. (2007) Immunity 26:371.
    11. Kryczek, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:6730.
    12. Afzali, B. et al. (2007) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148:32.
    13. Fehervari, Z. et al. (2006) Trends Immunol. 27:109.
  • Long Name:
    Interleukin 2
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3558 (Human); 396868 (Human); 116562 (Human); 751114 (Human); 16183 (Human); 280822 (Bovine); 403989 (Canine); 100034204 (Equine); 100302458 (Rabbit);
  • Alternate Names:
    aldesleukin; Aldesleukin; IL-2lymphokine; interleukin 2; interleukin-2; involved in regulation of T-cell clonal expansion; T cell growth factor; T-cell growth factor; TCGF
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 79
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. In vivo maintenance of human regulatory T cells during CD25 blockade.
    Authors: Huss, David J, Mehta, Devangi, Sharma, Akanksha, You, Xiaojun, Riester, Katherin, Sheridan, James P, Amaravadi, Lakshmi, Elkins, Jacob S, Fontenot, Jason D
    J Immunol, 2015;194(1):84-92.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide- or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells.
    Authors: Nestle, F O, Alijagic, S, Gilliet, M, Sun, Y, Grabbe, S, Dummer, R, Burg, G, Schadendorf, D
    Nat Med, 1998;4(3):328-32.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Exploiting a natural conformational switch to engineer an interleukin-2 'superkine'.
    Authors: Levin AM, Bates DL, Ring AM, Krieg C, Lin JT, Su L, Moraga I, Raeber ME, Bowman GR, Novick P, Pande VS, Fathman CG, Boyman O, Garcia KC
    Nature, 2012;484(7395):529-33.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  4. Interleukin-24 inhibits the plasma cell differentiation program in human germinal center B cells.
    Authors: Maarof G, Bouchet-Delbos L, Gary-Gouy H, Durand-Gasselin I, Krzysiek R, Dalloul A
    Blood, 2010;115(9):1718-26.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the regulation of human invariant natural killer T cells: lessons from obesity, diabetes and psoriasis.
    Authors: Hogan AE, Tobin AM, Ahern T, Corrigan MA, Gaoatswe G, Jackson R, O'Reilly V, Lynch L, Doherty DG, Moynagh PN, Kirby B, O'Connell J, O'Shea D
    Diabetologia, 2011;54(11):2745-54.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.
    Authors: Goulart MR, Pluhar GE, Ohlfest JR
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(3):e33274.
    Species: Canine
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL-10 family members?
    Authors: Wolk K, Kunz S, Asadullah K, Sabat R
    J. Immunol., 2002;168(11):5397-402.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  8. BAFF and APRIL protect myeloma cells from apoptosis induced by interleukin 6 deprivation and dexamethasone.
    Authors: Moreaux J, Legouffe E, Jourdan E, Quittet P, Reme T, Lugagne C, Moine P, Rossi JF, Klein B, Tarte K
    Blood, 2004;103(8):3148-57.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Allogeneic disparities in immunoglobulin-like transcript 5 induce potent antibody responses in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
    Authors: Pfistershammer K, Lawitschka A, Klauser C, Leitner J, Weigl R, Heemskerk MH, Pickl WF, Majdic O, Bohmig GA, Fischer GF, Greinix HT, Steinberger P
    Blood, 2009;114(11):2323-32.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis attenuates inflammatory gene expression through inducible activity of the phosphatase SHP-1.
    Authors: Christophi GP, Panos M, Hudson CA, Tsikkou C, Mihai C, Mejico LJ, Jubelt B, Massa PT
    Clin. Immunol., 2009;133(1):27-44.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  11. Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes keep TNF alpha levels low by cell uptake and feedback inhibition of transcription.
    Authors: Ebert EC, Mehta V
    Cell. Immunol., 2006;241(1):7-13.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Late expression of granulysin by microbicidal CD4+ T cells requires PI3K- and STAT5-dependent expression of IL-2Rbeta that is defective in HIV-infected patients.
    Authors: Zheng CF, Jones GJ, Shi M, Wiseman JC, Marr KJ, Berenger BM, Huston SM, Gill MJ, Krensky AM, Kubes P, Mody CH
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(11):7221-9.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Isolation and characterization of CD8+ regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.
    Authors: Correale J, Villa A
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2008;195(1):121-34.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Characterization of in vitro antimurine thymocyte globulin-induced regulatory T cells that inhibit graft-versus-host disease in vivo.
    Authors: Ruzek MC, Waire JS, Hopkins D, Lacorcia G, Sullivan J, Roberts BL, Richards SM, Nahill SR, Williams JM, Scaria A, Dzuris J, Shankara S, Garman RD
    Blood, 2007;111(3):1726-34.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Dasatinib, a small-molecule protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits T-cell activation and proliferation.
    Authors: Schade AE, Schieven GL, Townsend R, Jankowska AM, Susulic V, Zhang R, Szpurka H, Maciejewski JP
    Blood, 2007;111(3):1366-77.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  16. SHP-1 deficiency and increased inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs of multiple sclerosis patients.
    Authors: Christophi GP, Hudson CA, Gruber RC, Christophi CP, Mihai C, Mejico LJ, Jubelt B, Massa PT
    Lab. Invest., 2008;88(3):243-55.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  17. Alpha1beta1 integrin is crucial for accumulation of epidermal T cells and the development of psoriasis.
    Authors: Conrad C, Boyman O, Tonel G, Tun-Kyi A, Laggner U, de Fougerolles A, Kotelianski V, Gardner H, Nestle FO
    Nat. Med., 2007;13(7):836-42.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Differential glycosylation of TH1, TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death.
    Authors: Toscano MA, Bianco GA, Ilarregui JM, Croci DO, Correale J, Hernandez JD, Zwirner NW, Poirier F, Riley EM, Baum LG, Rabinovich GA
    Nat. Immunol., 2007;8(8):825-34.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  19. GATA3 up-regulation associated with surface expression of CD294/CRTH2: a unique feature of human Th cells.
    Authors: De Fanis U, Mori F, Kurnat RJ, Lee WK, Bova M, Adkinson NF, Casolaro V
    Blood, 2007;109(10):4343-50.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  20. Development of an in vitro potency bioassay for therapeutic IL-13 antagonists: the A-549 cell bioassay.
    Authors: Miller R, Sadhukhan R, Wu C
    J. Immunol. Methods, 2008;334(1):134-41.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  21. CD16+ monocyte-derived macrophages activate resting T cells for HIV infection by producing CCR3 and CCR4 ligands.
    Authors: Ancuta P, Autissier P, Wurcel A, Zaman T, Stone D, Gabuzda D
    J. Immunol., 2006;176(10):5760-71.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  22. Resistance to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by death receptor 6-deficient mice.
    Authors: Schmidt CS, Zhao J, Chain J, Hepburn D, Gitter B, Sandusky G, Chintalacharuvu S, Glasebrook A, Na S
    J. Immunol., 2005;175(4):2286-92.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  23. A synergistic antitumor effect of interleukin-2 addition with CD80 immunogene therapy for peritoneal metastasis of gastric carcinoma.
    Authors: Kosaka K, Yashiro M, Sakate Y, Hirakawa K
    Dig. Dis. Sci., 2007;52(8):1946-53.
  24. Soluble Interleukin IL-15Ralpha is generated by alternative splicing or proteolytic cleavage and forms functional complexes with IL-15.
    Authors: Bulanova E, Budagian V, Duitman E, Orinska Z, Krause H, Ruckert R, Reiling N, Bulfone-Paus S
    J. Biol. Chem., 2007;282(18):13167-79.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  25. IL-10 inhibits endothelium-dependent T cell costimulation by up-regulation of ILT3/4 in human vascular endothelial cells.
    Authors: Gleissner CA, Zastrow A, Klingenberg R, Kluger MS, Konstandin M, Celik S, Haemmerling S, Shankar V, Giese T, Katus HA, Dengler TJ
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2007;37(1):177-92.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  26. Human dendritic cells acquire a semimature phenotype and lymph node homing potential through interaction with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
    Authors: Bayry J, Triebel F, Kaveri SV, Tough DF
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(7):4184-93.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  27. The immunoregulator soluble TACI is released by ADAM10 and reflects B cell activation in autoimmunity.
    Authors: Hoffmann F, Kuhn P, Laurent S, Hauck S, Berer K, Wendlinger S, Krumbholz M, Khademi M, Olsson T, Dreyling M, Pfister H, Alexander T, Hiepe F, Kumpfel T, Crawford H, Wekerle H, Hohlfeld R, Lichtenthaler S, Meinl E
    J Immunol, 2015;194(2):542-52.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  28. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) activity correlates with immune system abnormalities in multiple myeloma.
    Authors: Bonanno G, Mariotti A, Procoli A, Folgiero V, Natale D, De Rosa L, Majolino I, Novarese L, Rocci A, Gambella M, Ciciarello M, Scambia G, Palumbo A, Locatelli F, De Cristofaro R, Rutella S
    J Transl Med, 2012;10(0):247.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  29. Protein kinase C and NF-kappaB-dependent CD4 downregulation in macrophages induced by T cell-derived soluble factors: consequences for HIV-1 infection.
    Authors: Raposo RA, Trudgian DC, Thomas B, van Wilgenburg B, Cowley SA, James W
    J. Immunol., 2011;187(2):748-59.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  30. IL-15 does not affect IEL development in the thymus but regulates homeostasis of putative precursors and mature CD8 alpha alpha+ IELs in the intestine.
    Authors: Lai YG, Hou MS, Hsu YW, Chang CL, Liou YH, Tsai MH, Lee F, Liao NS
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(6):3757-65.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  31. Autologous melanoma vaccine induces antitumor and self-reactive immune responses that affect patient survival and depend on MHC class II expression on vaccine cells.
    Authors: Lotem M, Machlenkin A, Hamburger T, Nissan A, Kadouri L, Frankenburg S, Gimmon Z, Elias O, David IB, Kuznetz A, Shiloni E, Peretz T
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2009;15(15):4968-77.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  32. Th2 cytokine response in Major Depressive Disorder patients before treatment.
    Authors: Pavon L, Kiryushko D, Novitskaya V, Sandoval-Lopez G, Eugenia Hernandez M, Soroka V, Klingelhofer J, Loria F, Estrada I, Lukanidin E, Berezin V, Perez M, Moreno J, Bock E, Avila U, Leff P, Anton B, Heinze G
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2006;172(1):156-65.
    Species: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  33. Tumor Microenvironment Macrophage Inhibitory Factor Directs the Accumulation of Interleukin-17-producing Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes and Predicts Favorable Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients.
    Authors: Li J, Mo H, Xiong G, Zhang L, He J, Huang Z, Liu Z, Chen Q, Du Z, Zheng L, Qian C, Zeng Y
    J Biol Chem, 2012;287(42):35484-95.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  34. A novel bispecific protein (ULBP2-BB4) targeting the NKG2D receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and CD138 activates NK cells and has potent antitumor activity against human multiple myeloma in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: von Strandmann EP, Hansen HP, Reiners KS, Schnell R, Borchmann P, Merkert S, Simhadri VR, Draube A, Reiser M, Purr I, Hallek M, Engert A
    Blood, 2006;107(5):1955-62.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  35. WIP is a chaperone for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP).
    Authors: de la Fuente MA, Sasahara Y, Calamito M, Anton IM, Elkhal A, Gallego MD, Suresh K, Siminovitch K, Ochs HD, Anderson KC, Rosen FS, Geha RS, Ramesh N
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007;104(3):926-31.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  36. Development of functional human NK cells in an immunodeficient mouse model with the ability to provide protection against tumor challenge.
    Authors: Kwant-Mitchell A, Pek EA, Rosenthal KL
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(12):e8379.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  37. Retagging identifies dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) protein as a novel receptor for a major allergen from house dust mite.
    Authors: Emara M, Royer PJ, Mahdavi J
    J. Biol. Chem., 2012;287(8):5756-63.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  38. The kinase p38 activated by the metabolic regulator AMPK and scaffold TAB1 drives the senescence of human T cells.
    Authors: Lanna, Alessio, Henson, Sian M, Escors, David, Akbar, Arne N
    Nat Immunol, 2014;15(10):965-72.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  39. Repeated exposure induces periportal fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni-infected baboons: role of TGF-beta and IL-4.
    Authors: Farah IO, Mola PW, Kariuki TM, Nyindo M, Blanton RE, King CL
    J. Immunol., 2000;164(10):5337-43.
    Species: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  40. CYP7B expression and activity in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis: regulation by proinflammatory cytokines.
    Authors: Dulos J, van der Vleuten MA, Kavelaars A, Heijnen CJ, Boots AM
    Arthritis Rheum., 2005;52(3):770-8.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  41. Mouse natural killer (NK) cells express the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, which is dynamically regulated.
    Authors: Ralainirina N, Brons NH, Ammerlaan W, Hoffmann C, Hentges F, Zimmer J
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(12):e15053.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  42. IL-17 markedly up-regulates beta-defensin-2 expression in human airway epithelium via JAK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
    Authors: Kao CY, Chen Y, Thai P, Wachi S, Huang F, Kim C, Harper RW, Wu R
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(5):3482-91.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  43. Semen clusterin is a novel DC-SIGN ligand.
    Authors: Sabatte J, Faigle W, Ceballos A, Morelle W, Rodrígues CR, Lenicov FR, Thepaut M, Fieschi F, Malchiodi E, Fernandez M, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Lortat-Jacob H, Michalski JC, Geffner J, Amigorena S
    J. Immunol., 2011;187(10):5299-309.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  44. Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B cells.
    Authors: Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G
    Ann. Neurol., 2008;64(2):187-99.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  45. Helminth antigens modulate immune responses in cells from multiple sclerosis patients through TLR2-dependent mechanisms.
    Authors: Correale J, Farez M
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(9):5999-6012.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  46. Transfer of NKG2D and MICB at the cytotoxic NK cell immune synapse correlates with a reduction in NK cell cytotoxic function.
    Authors: Roda-Navarro P, Vales-Gomez M, Chisholm SE, Reyburn HT
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006;103(30):11258-63.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  47. Regulatory T cell phenotype and function 4 years after GAD-alum treatment in children with type 1 diabetes.
    Authors: Pihl M, Akerman L, Axelsson S, Cheramy M, Hjorth M, Mallone R, Ludvigsson J, Casas R
    Clin Exp Immunol, 2013;172(3):394-402.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  48. Role of Smad proteins in resistance to BMP-induced growth inhibition in B-cell lymphoma.
    Authors: Huse K, Bakkebo M, Walchli S, Oksvold M, Hilden V, Forfang L, Bredahl M, Liestol K, Alizadeh A, Smeland E, Myklebust J
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(10):e46117.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  49. IL-10 suppresses Th17 cells and promotes regulatory T cells in the CD4+ T cell population of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
    Authors: Heo YJ, Joo YB, Oh HJ, Park MK, Heo YM, Cho ML, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Park KS, Cho SG, Park SH, Kim HY, Min JK
    Immunol. Lett., 2010;127(2):150-6.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  50. The IL23R R381Q Gene Variant Protects against Immune-Mediated Diseases by Impairing IL-23-Induced Th17 Effector Response in Humans.
    Authors: Di Meglio P, Di Cesare A, Laggner U
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(2):e17160.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  51. Functional coexpression of Interleukin (IL)-7 and its receptor (IL-7R) on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells: Involvement of IL-7 in tumor cell growth and microenvironmental interactions of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
    Authors: Cattaruzza L, Gloghini A, Olivo K, Di Francia R, Lorenzon D, De Filippi R, Carbone A, Colombatti A, Pinto A, Aldinucci D
    Int. J. Cancer, 2009;125(5):1092-101.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  52. Human bronchial intraepithelial T cells produce interferon-gamma and stimulate epithelial cells.
    Authors: Hirosako S, Goto E, Fujii K, Tsumori K, Hirata N, Tsumura S, Kamohara H, Kohrogi H
    Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2009;155(2):266-74.
  53. Natural and induced CD4+CD25+ cells educate CD4+CD25- cells to develop suppressive activity: the role of IL-2, TGF-beta, and IL-10.
    Authors: Zheng SG, Wang JH, Gray JD, Soucier H, Horwitz DA
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(9):5213-21.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  54. Antigen-independent induction of Tim-3 expression on human T cells by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 is associated with proliferation and is dependent on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.
    Authors: Mujib S, Jones RB, Lo C, Aidarus N, Clayton K, Sakhdari A, Benko E, Kovacs C, Ostrowski MA
    J. Immunol., 2012;188(8):3745-56.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  55. Virally stimulated plasmacytoid dendritic cells produce chemokines and induce migration of T and NK cells.
    Authors: Megjugorac NJ, Young HA, Amrute SB, Olshalsky SL, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2004;75(3):504-14.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  56. HDAC11 plays an essential role in regulating OX40 ligand expression in Hodgkin lymphoma.
    Authors: Buglio D, Khaskhely NM, Voo KS, Martinez-Valdez H, Liu YJ, Younes A
    Blood, 2011;117(10):2910-7.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  57. An inflammation-induced mechanism for leukocyte transmigration across lymphatic vessel endothelium.
    Authors: Johnson LA, Clasper S, Holt AP, Lalor PF, Baban D, Jackson DG
    J. Exp. Med., 2006;203(12):2763-77.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  58. Chronically inflamed human tissues are infiltrated by highly differentiated Th17 lymphocytes.
    Authors: Pene J, Chevalier S, Preisser L, Venereau E, Guilleux MH, Ghannam S, Moles JP, Danger Y, Ravon E, Lesaux S, Yssel H, Gascan H
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(0):7423.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  59. Local IL-21 promotes the therapeutic activity of effector T cells by decreasing regulatory T cells within the tumor microenvironment.
    Authors: Kim-Schulze S, Kim HS, Fan Q, Kim DW, Kaufman HL
    Mol. Ther., 2009;17(2):380-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  60. Identification of functional roles for both IL-17RB and IL-17RA in mediating IL-25-induced activities.
    Authors: Rickel EA, Siegel LA, Yoon BR, Rottman JB, Kugler DG, Swart DA, Anders PM, Tocker JE, Comeau MR, Budelsky AL
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(6):4299-310.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  61. Bortezomib treatment and regulatory T-cell depletion enhance the antitumor effects of adoptively infused NK cells.
    Authors: Lundqvist A, Yokoyama H, Smith A, Berg M, Childs R
    Blood, 2009;113(24):6120-7.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  62. Upregulation of human cytomegalovirus by HIV type 1 in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo.
    Authors: Biancotto A, Iglehart SJ, Lisco A, Vanpouille C, Grivel JC, Lurain NS, Reichelderfer PS, Margolis LB
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2008;24(3):453-62.
    Species: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  63. Th17 cells expressing KIR3DL2+ and responsive to HLA-B27 homodimers are increased in ankylosing spondylitis.
    Authors: Bowness P, Ridley A, Shaw J
    J. Immunol., 2011;186(0):2672.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  64. Involvement of Fc gamma RI (CD64) in the mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by polyclonal IgG purified from infected patients in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages.
    Authors: Holl V, Hemmerter S, Burrer R, Schmidt S, Bohbot A, Aubertin AM, Moog C
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(10):6274-83.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  65. Dendritic cells can turn CD4+ T lymphocytes into vascular endothelial growth factor-carrying cells by intercellular neuropilin-1 transfer.
    Authors: Bourbie-Vaudaine S, Blanchard N, Hivroz C, Romeo PH
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(3):1460-9.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  66. A receptor for the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23 is composed of IL-12Rbeta1 and a novel cytokine receptor subunit, IL-23R.
    Authors: Parham C, Chirica M, Timans J, Vaisberg E, Travis M, Cheung J, Pflanz S, Zhang R, Singh KP, Vega F, To W, Wagner J, O&amp;amp;apos;Farrell AM, McClanahan T, Zurawski S, Hannum C, Gorman D, Rennick DM, Kastelein RA, de Waal Malefyt R, Moore KW
    J. Immunol., 2002;168(11):5699-708.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  67. CD27 defines phenotypically and functionally different human NK cell subsets.
    Authors: Vossen MT, Matmati M, Hertoghs KM, Baars PA, Gent MR, Leclercq G, Hamann J, Kuijpers TW, van Lier RA
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(6):3739-45.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  68. In vivo blockade of OX40 ligand inhibits thymic stromal lymphopoietin driven atopic inflammation.
    Authors: Seshasayee D, Lee WP, Zhou M, Shu J, Suto E, Zhang J, Diehl L, Austin CD, Meng YG, Tan M, Bullens SL, Seeber S, Fuentes ME, Labrijn AF, Graus YM, Miller LA, Schelegle ES, Hyde DM, Wu LC, Hymowitz SG, Martin F
    J. Clin. Invest., 2007;117(12):3868-3878.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  69. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma.
    Authors: Ungerer C, Doberstein K, Burger C, Hardt K, Boehncke WH, Bohm B, Pfeilschifter J, Dummer R, Mihic-Probst D, Gutwein P
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010;401(3):363-9.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  70. The majority of human peripheral blood CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells bear functional skin-homing receptors.
    Authors: Hirahara K, Liu L, Clark RA, Yamanaka K, Fuhlbrigge RC, Kupper TS
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(7):4488-94.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  71. Expression and role of CCR6/CCL20 chemokine axis in pulmonary sarcoidosis.
    Authors: Facco M, Baesso I, Miorin M, Bortoli M, Cabrelle A, Boscaro E, Gurrieri C, Trentin L, Zambello R, Calabrese F, Cassatella MA, Semenzato G, Agostini C
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2007;82(4):946-55.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  72. Human plasmacytoid predendritic cells activate NK cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-ligand (GITRL).
    Authors: Hanabuchi S, Watanabe N, Wang YH, Ito T, Shaw J, Cao W, Qin FX, Liu YJ
    Blood, 2006;107(9):3617-23.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  73. HIV-1 pathogenesis differs in rectosigmoid and tonsillar tissues infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1.
    Authors: Grivel JC, Elliott J, Lisco A, Biancotto A, Condack C, Shattock RJ, McGowan I, Margolis L, Anton P
    AIDS, 2007;21(10):1263-72.
    Species: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  74. Dendritic cells induce MUC1 expression and polarization on human T cells by an IL-7-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Vasir B, Avigan D, Wu Z, Crawford K, Turnquist S, Ren J, Kufe D
    J. Immunol., 2005;174(4):2376-86.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  75. Hypercytotoxicity and rapid loss of NKp44+ innate lymphoid cells during acute SIV infection.
    Authors: Li H, Richert-Spuhler L, Evans T, Gillis J, Connole M, Estes J, Keele B, Klatt N, Reeves R
    PLoS Pathog, 2014;10(12):e1004551.
    Species: Rhesus Macaque
    Application: Bioassay
  76. Despite IFN-lambda receptor expression, blood immune cells, but not keratinocytes or melanocytes, have an impaired response to type III interferons: implications for therapeutic applications of these cytokines.
    Authors: Witte K, Gruetz G, Volk HD, Looman AC, Asadullah K, Sterry W, Sabat R, Wolk K
    Genes Immun., 2009;10(8):702-14.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  77. TLR-stimulated CD34 stem cell-derived human skin-like and monocyte-derived dendritic cells fail to induce Th17 polarization of naive T cells but do stimulate Th1 and Th17 memory responses.
    Authors: Duraisingham SS, Hornig J, Gotch F, Patterson S
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(4):2242-51.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  78. Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12.
    Authors: Oppmann, B, Lesley, R, Blom, B, Timans, J C, Xu, Y, Hunte, B, Vega, F, Yu, N, Wang, J, Singh, K, Zonin, F, Vaisberg, E, Churakova, T, Liu, M, Gorman, D, Wagner, J, Zurawski, S, Liu, Y, Abrams, J S, Moore, K W, Rennick, D, de Waal-Malefyt, R, Hannum, C, Bazan, J F, Kastelein, R A
    Immunity, 2000;13(5):715-25.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
  79. Induction of lysosomal and plasma membrane-bound sialidases in human T-cells via T-cell receptor.
    Authors: Wang P, Zhang J, Bian H, Wu P, Kuvelkar R, Kung TT, Crawley Y, Egan RW, Billah MM
    Biochem. J., 2004;380(0):425-33.
    Species: Human
    Application: Bioassay
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