Human Latent TGF-beta 1 ELISpot Kit
Human Latent TGF-beta 1 ELISpot Kit Summary
* Provided that the recommended microplates, buffers, diluents, substrates and solutions are used, and the assay is run as summarized in the Assay Procedure provided.
ELISpot kits are highly sensitive, microplate-based assays for the detection of cytokine secreting cells. This kit is designed for the detection and enumeration of human TGF-beta 1. Complete ELISpot kits are ready-to-run and require no assay development or refinement.
This ELISpot assay employs a capture antibody specific for human TGF-beta 1, pre-coated onto a PVDF-backed microplate. Appropriately stimulated cells are pipetted directly into the wells and the immobilized antibody in the immediate vicinity of the secreting cells binds secreted human TGF-beta 1. Following wash steps and incubation with a biotinylated detection antibody, alkaline-phosphatase conjugated to streptavidin is added. Unbound enzyme is subsequently removed by washing and a substrate solution (BCIP/NBT) is added. A blue-black colored precipitate forms at the sites of cytokine localization and appears as spots, with each individual spot representing an individual human TGF-beta 1 secreting cell. The spots can be counted with an automated ELISpot reader system or manually using a stereomicroscope.
- Detect and quantitate individual cells secreting human TGF-beta 1
- High sensitivity - ELISpot assays can measure responses with frequencies well below 1 in 100,000 cells
- No in vitro expansion of cells required
- High-throughput - ELISpot assays use only a small number of primary cells
- Human TGF-beta 1 Microplate
- Biotinylated Detection Antibody
- Streptavidin conjugated to Alkaline Phosphatase
- Dilution Buffers
- Wash Buffer Concentrate
- BCIP/NBT Chromogen
- Human TGF-beta 1 Positive Control
OTHER REAGENTS REQUIRED
- Pipettes and pipette tips
- Deionized or distilled water
- Squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or automated microplate washer
- 500 mL graduated cylinder
- 37 °C CO2 incubator
- Sterile culture media
- Dissection microscope or an automated ELISpot reader
Preparation and Storage
Background: TGF-beta 1
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF-beta molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeted deletions of these genes in mice show that each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions: TGF-beta 1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-beta 2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-beta 3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. The full range of in vitro biological activities of TGF-beta 5 has not yet been explored. However, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and TGF-beta 5 have been found to be largely interchangeable in an inhibitory bioassay, and it is anticipated that TGF-beta 5 will show a spectrum of activities similar to the other TGF-beta family members. To date, the production of TGF-beta 5 has only been demonstrated in Xenopus.
TGF-beta ligands are initially synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo proteolytic cleavage. The mature segments form active ligand dimers via a disulfide-rich core consisting of the characteristic 'cysteine knot'. TGF-beta signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, either ALK-1 or TGF-beta RI (also called ALK-5). The activated type I receptor phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for distinct actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.
Citations for Human Latent TGF-beta 1 ELISpot Kit
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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Contribution of endotoxin to Th17 bias in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Authors: X Wang, D Ji, B Zhu, S Jiang, L Han, Y Wang, H Mai, S Xu, H Jiang, G Wang, Y Rong
Microb. Pathog., 2020;0(0):104009.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Induction of latency-associated peptide (transforming growth factor-beta(1)) expression on CD4+ T cells reduces Toll-like receptor 4 ligand-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in a transforming growth factor-beta-dependent manner.
Authors: Boswell S, Sharif S, Alisa A, Pereira SP, Williams R, Behboudi S
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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