LDL R in Human Liver.LDL R was detected in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Goat Anti-Human LDL R Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2148) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL R) is the founding member of the LDL R family of scavenger receptors. This family contains transmembrane molecules that are characterized by the presence of EGF repeats, complement-like repeats, and YWTD motifs that form beta -propellers. Although members of the family were originally thought to be endocytic receptors, it is now clear that some members interact with adjacent cell‑surface molecules, expanding their range of activities. Human LDL R is synthesized as an 860 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 767 aa extracellular region, a 22 aa transmembrane segment and a 50 aa cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular region is complex. It consists of seven N-terminal complement-like cysteine-rich repeats that bind ligand. Cysteine residues in this region participate in intrachain disulfide bonds. This region is followed by three EGF-like repeats with a beta -propeller YWTD containing motif. The EGF-like repeats are responsible for ligand bonding and dissociation. Finally, there is a 50 aa membrane proximal Ser/Thr‑rich region that serves as a carbohydrate attachment point. There is extensive O‑linked and modest N-linked glycosylation. Thus the receptor’s predicted molecular weight of 93 kDa is increased to a native molecular weight of 120 ‑ 160 kDa. Within the 50 aa cytoplasmic tail, there is an NPXY motif that links the receptor to clathrin pits. The extracellular region of human LDL R is 51% aa identical to the extracellular region of human VLDL R, and 79% aa identical to the extracellular region of mouse LDL R. LDL R is constitutively expressed and binds apoB of LDL and apoE of VLDL. It is responsible for clearing 70% of plasma LDL in liver. Mutations in the LDL R gene cause the autosomal dominant disorder, familial hypercholesterolemia.
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