• Assay Length
    4.5 hours
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant human M-CSF
  • Cross-reactivity
    < 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
  • Interference
    No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Control Available
QC21, Quantikine Immunoassay Control Group 4 - Please Inquire
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human M-CSF Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human M-CSF in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, saliva, and urine. It contains CHO cell-expressed recombinant human M-CSF and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural human M-CSF showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring human M-CSF.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Cell Culture Supernates, Saliva, Urine
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation19.416.14930.27687.7

Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation17.424.949.443.484.188.8


The recovery of M-CSF spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=4) 99 90-107
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 100 93-106
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 99 93-106
Serum (n=4) 101 96-106
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of M-CSF were serially diluted with the appropriate Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human M-CSF Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: M-CSF
M-CSF, also known as CSF-1, is a four-alpha-helical-bundle cytokine that is the primary regulator of macrophage survival, proliferation and differentiation. M-CSF is also essential for the survival and proliferation of osteoclast progenitors. M-CSF also primes and enhances macrophage killing of tumor cells and microorganisms, regulates the release of cytokines and other inflammatory modulators from macrophages, and stimulates pinocytosis. M-CSF increases during pregnancy to support implantation and growth of the decidua and placenta. Sources of M-CSF include fibroblasts, activated macrophages, endometrial secretory epithelium, bone marrow stromal cells and activated endothelial cells. The M-CSF receptor (c-fms) transduces its pleotropic effects and mediates its endocytosis. M-CSF mRNAs of various sizes occur. Full length human M-CSF transcripts encode a 522 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 464 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa TM domain, and a 37 aa cytoplasmic tail that forms a 140 kDa covalent dimer. Differential processing produces two proteolytically cleaved, secreted dimers. One is an N- and O- glycosylated 86 kDa dimer, while the other is modified by both glycosylation and chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG) to generate a 200 kDa subunit. Although PG-modified M-CSF can circulate, it may be immobilized by attachment to type V collagen. Shorter transcripts encode M-CSF that lack cleavage and PG sites and produce an N-glycosylated 68 kDa TM dimer and a slowly produced 44 kDa secreted dimer. Although forms may vary in activity and half-life, all contain the N-terminal 150 aa portion that is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the M-CSF receptor. The first 223 aa of mature human M-CSF shares 88%, 86%, 81% and 74% aa identity with corresponding regions of dog, cow, mouse and rat M-CSF, respectively. Human M-CSF is active in the mouse, but mouse M-CSF is reported to be species-specific.
    • Long Name
      Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      1435 (Human); 12977 (Mouse);
    • Alternate Names
      colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage); CSF1; CSF-1; Lanimostim; macrophage colony stimulating factor; macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1; MCSF; M-CSF; MCSFlanimostim; MGC31930;
    Related Research Areas

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    18 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
    Filter your results:

    Sample Type
    1. New Markers of Inflammation and Tubular Damage in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
      Authors: K Musia?, A Bargenda, D Dro?d?, D Zwoli?ska
      Dis. Markers, 2017;2017(0):9389432.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Urine
    2. Urokinase receptor mediates osteoclastogenesis via M-CSF release from osteoblasts and the c-Fms/PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway in osteoclasts.
      Authors: Kalbasi Anaraki P, Patecki M, Tkachuk S, Kiyan Y, Haller H, Dumler I
      J Bone Miner Res, 2015;30(2):379-88.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    3. Hypoxia potentiates glioma-mediated immunosuppression.
      Authors: Wei J, Wu A, Kong LY, Wang Y, Fuller G, Fokt I, Melillo G, Priebe W, Heimberger AB
      PLoS ONE, 2012;6(1):e16195.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    4. Engulfment of hematopoietic stem cells caused by down-regulation of CD47 is critical in the pathogenesis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
      Authors: Kuriyama T, Takenaka K, Kohno K, Yamauchi T, Daitoku S, Yoshimoto G, Kikushige Y, Kishimoto J, Abe Y, Harada N, Miyamoto T, Iwasaki H, Teshima T, Akashi K
      Blood, 2012;120(19):4058-67.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    5. Whole-Body UVB Irradiation during Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Is Safe and Decreases Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.
      Authors: Kreutz M, Karrer S, Hoffmann P
      J. Invest. Dermatol., 2012;132(1):179-87.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    6. Induced osteoclastogenesis by fluoroquinolones in unstimulated and stimulated human osteoclast precursor cells.
      Authors: Costa-Rodrigues J, Martins EG, Fernandes MH
      Bone, 2012;51(1):17-27.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    7. Circulating level of macrophage colony-stimulating factor can be predictive for human in vitro fertilization outcome.
      Authors: Salmassi A, Mettler L, Jonat W
      Fertil. Steril., 2010;93(1):116-23.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    8. EMMPRIN and its ligand cyclophilin A regulate MT1-MMP, MMP-9 and M-CSF during foam cell formation.
      Authors: Seizer P, Schonberger T, Schott M, Lang MR, Langer HF, Bigalke B, Kramer BF, Borst O, Daub K, Heidenreich O, Schmidt R, Lindemann S, Herouy Y, Gawaz M, May AE
      Atherosclerosis, 2010;209(1):51-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    9. HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells.
      Authors: Schuster C, Vaculik C, Fiala C, Meindl S, Brandt O, Imhof M, Stingl G, Eppel W, Elbe-Burger A
      J. Exp. Med., 2009;206(1):169-81.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    10. Isolation and characterization of CD146+ multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.
      Authors: Sorrentino A, Ferracin M, Castelli G, Biffoni M, Tomaselli G, Baiocchi M, Fatica A, Negrini M, Peschle C, Valtieri M
      Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(8):1035-46.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    11. Innate immune responses to TREM-1 activation: overlap, divergence, and positive and negative cross-talk with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
      Authors: Dower K, Ellis DK, Saraf K, Jelinsky SA, Lin LL
      J. Immunol., 2008;180(5):3520-34.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    12. Exogenous heat shock protein 27 uniquely blocks differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells.
      Authors: Laudanski K, De A, Miller-Graziano C
      Eur. J. Immunol., 2007;37(10):2812-24.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    13. Markers of immune activation and viral load in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
      Authors: Schifitto G, McDermott MP, McArthur JC, Marder K, Sacktor N, McClernon DR, Conant K, Cohen B, Epstein LG, Kieburtz K, Kieburtz K
      Neurology, 2005;64(5):842-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    14. The cell-surface isoform of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) restores but does not completely normalize fecundity in CSF1-deficient mice.
      Authors: Ovadia S, Insogna K, Yao GQ
      Biol. Reprod., 2005;74(2):331-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    15. The effect of inflammatory cytokines on secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human granulosa cells.
      Authors: Kawano Y, Fukuda J, Itoh H, Takai N, Nasu K, Miyakawa I
      Am. J. Reprod. Immunol., 2004;52(2):124-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Follicular Fluid
    16. Presence of dendritic cells, MCP-1, and activated microglia/macrophages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord tissue.
      Authors: Henkel JS, Engelhardt JI, Siklos L, Simpson EP, Kim SH, Pan T, Goodman JC, Siddique T, Beers DR, Appel SH
      Ann. Neurol., 2004;55(2):221-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: CSF
    17. Distinct hematopoietic support by two human stromal cell lines.
      Authors: Loeuillet C, Bernard G, Remy-Martin J, Saas P, Herve P, Douay L, Chalmers D
      Exp. Hematol., 2001;29(6):736-45.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    18. High macrophage-colony stimulating factor levels in synovial fluid of loose artificial hip joints.
      Authors: Takei I, Takagi M, Ida H, Ogino T, Santavirta S, Konttinen YT
      J. Rheumatol., 2000;27(4):894-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Synovial Fluid
    Expand to show all 18 Citations
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