|Detection of Human, Mouse, and Rat HMGB1/HMG‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line, Hepa 1‑6 mouse hepatoma cell line, H4‑II‑E‑C3 rat hepatoma cell line, HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line, and HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.1 µg/mL of Rat Anti-Human HMGB1/HMG‑1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB16901) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF005). A specific band was detected for HMGB1/HMG‑1 at approximately 28 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
|HMGB1/HMG‑1 in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue. HMGB1/HMG‑1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human prostate cancer tissue using Rat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat HMGB1/HMG‑1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB16901) at 5 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Rat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS017) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to nuclei and cytoplasm. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
Human High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), previously known as HMG-1 or amphoterin, is a member of the high mobility group box family of non-histone chromosomal proteins (1‑3). Human HMGB1 is expressed as a 30 kDa, 215 amino acid (aa) single chain polypeptide containing three domains: two N-terminal globular, 70 aa positively charged DNA-binding domains (HMG boxes A and B), and a negatively charged 30 aa C-terminal region that contains only Asp and Glu (4, 5). Residues 27‑43 and 178‑184 contain a NLS. Posttranslational modifications of the molecule have been reported, with acetylation occurring on as many as 17 lysine residues (6). HMGB1 is expressed at high levels in almost all cells (2, 4). It was originally discovered as a nuclear protein that could bend DNA. Such bending stabilizes nucleosome formation and regulates the expression of select genes upon recruitment by DNA binding proteins (1, 7, 8). It is now known that HMGB1 can also act extracellularly, both as an inflammatory mediator that promotes monocyte migration and cytokine secretion, and as a mediator of T cell-dendritic cell interaction (1, 4, 7, 9, 10). The cytokine activity of HBMG1 is restricted to the HMG B box, (3) while the A box is associated with the helix-loop-helix domain of transcription factors (11). HMBG1 is released in response to cell death and as a secretion product. Although HMBG-1 does not possess a classic signal sequence, it appears to be secreted as an acetylated form via secretory endolysosome exocytosis (6, 12). Once secreted, HMGB1 transduces cellular signals through its high affinity receptor, RAGE and, possibly, TLR2 and TLR4 (1, 3, 4). Human HMGB1 is 100% aa identical to canine HMGB1 and 99% aa identical to mouse, rat, bovine and porcine HMGB1, respectively.
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