|Detection of Human and Mouse PARL by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cell line, MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, and mouse brown adipose tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat PARL Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF7306) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016). A specific band was detected for PARL at approximately 42 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
PARL (Presenilins-associated Rhomboid-like protein; also P beta ) is a 41-43 kDa member of the peptidase S54 family (alternatively, the 1 + 6 PARL subfamily; Rhomboid family) of molecules. It is ubiquitously expressed, being found in both embryo and adult. Rhomboid proteins are an ancient family of intramembrane-cleaving molecules that evolved as regulators of mitochondrial membrane dynamics. PARL is an inner mitochondrial-membrane embedded protein that appears to have at least two functions. First, it interacts with Opa1 and regulates apoptosis. Second, it appears to communicate to the nucleus information related to levels of mitochondrial stress. Human PARL is 379 amino acids (aa) in length. It consists of a mitochondrial targeting sequence (aa 1-52) plus a mature polypeptide (aa 53-379) that contains seven transmembrane segments and a 25 aa C-terminus that projects into the intermitochondrial membrane space. PARL undergoes two cleavages. The first occurs between Gly52Phe53 and removes the targeting sequence, generating a membrane-bound 37 kDa mature protein. The second occurs between Ser77Ala78, generating a membrane-bound 34 kDa processed form, plus a matrix-soluble 25 aa peptide (P beta -peptide; aa 53-77) that translocates to the nucleus. There is one potential splice variant that poseesses a Ser substitution for aa 203-253. Over aa 71-167, human PARL shares 92% aa sequence identity with mouse PARL.