Intracellular Staining by Flow Cytometry
|Detection of NTAL in THP‑1 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. THP‑1 human acute monocytic leukemia cell line was stained with Mouse Anti-Human NTAL APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # IC4066A, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC0041A, open histogram). Cells were fixed with Flow Cytometry Fixation Buffer (Catalog # FC004) and permeabilized with Flow Cytometry Permeabilization/Wash Buffer I (Catalog # FC005). View our protocol for Staining Intracellular Molecules.|
Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as LAT2 and Linker for Activation of B cells (LAB), is a 26-28 kDa, 243 amino acid (aa) type III transmembrane (TM) adaptor protein involved in immunoreceptor signaling. NTAL belongs to the TRAP family of adaptors and is expressed in lipid raft microdomains of B cells, mast cells, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, activated T cells and NK cells. Rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of NTAL occurs upon BCR aggregation in B cells, Fc epsilon RI aggregation and Kit activation in mast cells, Fc gamma RI aggregation in monocytes, and Dectin-2 ligation on dendritric cells. Phosphorylated NTAL recruits signaling molecules such as Grb2, Gab1, and c-Cbl into receptor-signaling complexes. As a consequence, dendritic cells secrete IL-12, NK cells secrete IFN-gamma, B cells demonstrate an ability to present antigen, and mast cells show enhanced survival. Defects in the NTAL gene may cause Williams-Beuren syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by mild mental retardation, and abnormalities in the cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal systems. One splice variant is known that shows a deletion of aa 112-243. Full-length human NTAL (aa 1-243) shares 49% aa sequence identity with aa 112-243 mouse NTAL.