|Detection of PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) either (A) untreated or (B) treated with 5 ug/mL PHA overnight were stained with Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 Alexa Fluor® 488‑conjugated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB7115G) and Mouse Anti-Human CD3 epsilon APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # IC108G). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28/CTLA-4 family of immunoreceptors that mediate signals for regulating immune responses (1). Members of the CD28/CTLA-4 family have been shown to either promote T cell activation (CD28 and ICOS) or down-regulate T cell activation (CTLA-4 and PD-1) (2). PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and on a subset of thymocytes. In vitro, ligation of PD-1 inhibits TCR-mediated T-cell proliferation and production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In addition, PD-1 ligation also inhibits BCR mediated signaling. PD-1 deficient mice have a defect in peripheral tolerance and spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases (2, 3).
Two B7 family proteins, PD-L1 (also called B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also known as B7-DC), have been identified as PD-1 ligands. Unlike other B7 family proteins, both PD‑L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a wide variety of normal tissues including heart, placenta, and activated spleens (4). The wide expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and the inhibitor effects on PD-1 ligation indicate that PD-1 might be involved in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and may help prevent autoimmune diseases (2).
The human PD-1 gene encodes a 288 amino acid (aa) protein with a putative 20 aa signal peptide, a 148 aa extracellular region with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 95 aa cytoplasmic region. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immuno-receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important in mediating PD-1 signaling. Mouse and human PD-1 share approximately 60% aa sequence identity (4).
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