Human PD-1 Biotinylated Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Detection of PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry.
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Product Details
Citations (12)
Supplemental Products

Human PD-1 Biotinylated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human PD-1 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich ELISAs, less than 2% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse PD-1 is observed and less than 0.2% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) CD28, rhICOS, and rhCTLA-4 is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human PD-1
Accession # Q8IX89
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human PD‑1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1086-PD)
Flow Cytometry
0.25 µg/106 cells
See below

Human PD-1 Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.1-0.4 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Capture Reagent: Human PD‑1 Antibody (Catalog # AF1086)

Standard: Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Protein, CF (Catalog # 1086-PD)

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Flow Cytometry Detection of PD-1 antibody in Human PBMCs treated with PHA antibody by Flow Cytometry. View Larger

Detection of PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) either (A) untreated or (B) treated with 5 µg/mL PHA overnight were stained with Goat Anti-Human PD-1 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # BAF1086) followed by Streptavidin-Phycoerythrin (Catalog # F0040) and Mouse Anti-Human CD3e APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # BAF108). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: PD-1

Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28/CTLA-4 family of immunoreceptors that mediate signals for regulating immune responses (1). Members of the CD28/CTLA-4 family have been shown to either promote T cell activation (CD28 and ICOS) or downregulate T cell activation (CTLA-4 and PD-1) (2). PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and on a subset of thymocytes. In vitro, ligation of PD-1 inhibits TCR-mediated T cell proliferation and production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In addition, PD-1 ligation also inhibits BCR mediated signaling. PD-1 deficient mice have a defect in peripheral tolerance and spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases (2, 3).

Two B7 family proteins, PD-L1 (also called B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also known as B7-DC), have been identified as PD-1 ligands. Unlike other B7 family proteins, both PD‑L1 and PD‑L2 are expressed in a wide variety of normal tissues including heart, placenta, and activated spleens (4). The wide expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and the inhibitor effects on PD-1 ligation indicate that PD-1 might be involved in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and may help prevent autoimmune diseases (2).

The human PD-1 gene encodes a 288 amino acid (aa) protein with a putative 20 aa signal peptide, a 148 aa extracellular region with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 95 aa cytoplasmic region. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immuno-receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important in mediating PD-1 signaling. Mouse and human PD-1 share approximately 60% aa sequence identity (4).

  1. Ishida, Y. et al. (1992) EMBO J. 11:3887.
  2. Nishimura, H. and T. Honjo (2001) Trends in Immunol. 22:265.
  3. Latchman, Y. et al. (2001) Nature Immun. 2:261.
  4. Carreno, B.M. and M. Collins (2002) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20:29.
Long Name
Programmed Death-1
Entrez Gene IDs
5133 (Human); 18566 (Mouse); 301626 (Rat); 100533201 (Porcine); 486213 (Canine); 102123659 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
CD279 antigen; CD279; hPD-1; PD1; PD-1; PD1hPD-l; PDCD1; programmed cell death 1; programmed cell death protein 1; Protein PD-1; SLEB2

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Citations for Human PD-1 Biotinylated Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

12 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Increased Plasma Soluble PD-1 Concentration Correlates with Disease Progression in Patients with Cancer Treated with Anti-PD-1 Antibodies
    Authors: R Ohkuma, K Ieguchi, M Watanabe, D Takayanagi, T Goshima, R Onoue, K Hamada, Y Kubota, A Horiike, T Ishiguro, Y Hirasawa, H Ariizumi, J Tsurutani, K Yoshimura, M Tsuji, Y Kiuchi, S Kobayashi, T Tsunoda, S Wada
    Biomedicines, 2021;9(12):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
    Applications: ELISA Development
  2. Evaluation of costimulatory molecules in dogs with B cell high grade lymphoma
    Authors: M Tagawa, C Kurashima, S Takagi, N Maekawa, S Konnai, G Shimbo, K Matsumoto, H Inokuma, K Kawamoto, K Miyahara
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(7):e0201222.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  3. Treatment with native heterodimeric IL-15 increases cytotoxic lymphocytes and reduces SHIV RNA in lymph nodes
    Authors: DC Watson, E Moysi, A Valentin, C Bergamasch, S Devasundar, SP Fortis, J Bear, E Chertova, J Bess, R Sowder, DJ Venzon, C Deleage, JD Estes, JD Lifson, C Petrovas, BK Felber, GN Pavlakis
    PLoS Pathog., 2018;14(2):e1006902.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Confocal Microscopy
  4. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma
    Authors: Naoya Maekawa
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0157176.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  5. Loss of circulating CD4 T cells with B cell helper function during chronic HIV infection.
    Authors: Boswell K, Paris R, Boritz E, Ambrozak D, Yamamoto T, Darko S, Wloka K, Wheatley A, Narpala S, McDermott A, Roederer M, Haubrich R, Connors M, Ake J, Douek D, Kim J, Petrovas C, Koup R
    PLoS Pathog, 2014;10(1):e1003853.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  6. Type I interferon responses in rhesus macaques prevent SIV infection and slow disease progression.
    Authors: Sandler N, Bosinger S, Estes J, Zhu R, Tharp G, Boritz E, Levin D, Wijeyesinghe S, Makamdop K, Del Prete G, Hill B, Timmer J, Reiss E, Yarden G, Darko S, Contijoch E, Todd J, Silvestri G, Nason M, Norgren R, Keele B, Rao S, Langer J, Lifson J, Schreiber G, Douek D
    Nature, 2014;511(7511):601-5.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  7. Programmed death 1-mediated T cell exhaustion during visceral leishmaniasis impairs phagocyte function.
    Authors: Esch K, Juelsgaard R, Martinez P, Jones D, Petersen C
    J Immunol, 2013;191(11):5542-50.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  8. CD4 T follicular helper cell dynamics during SIV infection.
    J. Clin. Invest., 2012;122(9):3281-94.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  9. Distribution, persistence, and efficacy of adoptively transferred central and effector memory-derived autologous Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell clones in rhesus macaques during acute infection.
    Authors: Minang JT, Trivett MT, Bolton DL, Trubey CM, Estes JD, Li Y, Smedley J, Pung R, Rosati M, Jalah R, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK, Piatak M, Roederer M, Lifson JD, Ott DE, Ohlen C
    J. Immunol., 2010;184(1):315-26.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  10. Trafficking, persistence, and activation state of adoptively transferred allogeneic and autologous Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell clones during acute and chronic infection of rhesus macaques.
    Authors: Bolton DL, Minang JT, Trivett MT, Song K, Tuscher JJ, Li Y, Piatak M, O'Connor D, Lifson JD, Roederer M, Ohlen C
    J. Immunol., 2010;184(1):303-14.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  11. Activation drives PD-1 expression during vaccine-specific proliferation and following lentiviral infection in macaques.
    Authors: Hokey DA, Johnson FB, Smith J, Weber JL, Yan J, Hirao L, Boyer JD, Lewis MG, Makedonas G, Betts MR, Weiner DB
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2008;38(5):1435-45.
    Species: Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  12. Programmed Death-1: from gene to protein in autoimmune human myasthenia gravis.
    Authors: Sakthivel P, Ramanujam R, Wang XB, Pirskanen R, Lefvert AK
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2007;193(1):149-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Development


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