Human Pleiotrophin/PTN Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Pleiotrophin/PTN in Human Pituitary.
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Product Details
Citations (11)
Supplemental Products

Human Pleiotrophin/PTN Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human Pleiotrophin/PTN in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 50% cross‑reactivity with recombinant mouse PTN is observed, and less than 1% cross‑reactivity with recombinant human Midkine is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human Pleiotrophin/PTN
Accession # P21246
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human Pleiotrophin/PTN (Catalog # 252-PL)
3-15 µg/mL
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Example

Immunohistochemistry Pleiotrophin/PTN antibody in Human Pituitary by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P). View Larger

Pleiotrophin/PTN in Human Pituitary. Pleiotrophin/PTN was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human pituitary using Goat Anti-Human Pleiotrophin/PTN Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-252-PB) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004). Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to plasma membrane and extracellular space. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Pleiotrophin/PTN

PTN was identified independently by several groups as a novel heparin-binding, developmentally regulated cytokine. Depending on the biological activities studied, this protein has variously been referred to as heparin-binding brain mitogen (HBBM), heparin-binding growth factor-8 (HBGF-8), heparin-binding neurite promoting factor, heparin-binding neurotrophic factor (HBNF), heparin-affinity regulatory peptide (HARP), heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM),
osteoblast-specific factor (OSF-1), and pleiotrophin. PTN is a highly conserved protein; the amino acid sequences of human, bovine, rat, and mouse PTN share >98% homology.

PTN is a member of a family of heparin-binding proteins that share sequence, structural, and functional similarity. Other members of this family include midkine (MK), and chicken retinoic acid-induced heparin-binding protein (RI-HB), an avian homologue of MK. The expression of all these cytokines is restricted and highly regulated during development.

PTN can be used as an attachment substrate to stimulate neurite outgrowth in mixed cultures of embryonic rat, mouse or chicken brain cells. Although both natural and recombinant human PTN have been reported to be mitogenic for fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, the data are still highly controversial. PTN has been shown to transform NIH-3T3 and SW-13 cells, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in the nude mouse. These results suggest that, in spite of the conflicting reports of PTN’s growth-promoting activity in vitro, PTN may have a role in abnormal cell growth in vivo.

Entrez Gene IDs
5764 (Human)
Alternate Names
HARP; HBBM; HB-GAM; HBGF8; HBNF; HBNF1; HBNF-1; Heparin-binding brain mitogen; HNGF-8; NEGF1HBGF-8; neurite growth-promoting factor 1; neurite growth-promoting factor1); OSF-1; Osteoblast-specific factor 1; Pleiotrophin; PTN

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human Pleiotrophin/PTN Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

11 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells require cell-autonomous pleiotrophin signaling
    Authors: HA Himburg, M Roos, T Fang, Y Zhang, CM Termini, L Schlussel, MM Kim, A Pang, J Kan, L Zhao, H Suh, JP Sasine, G Sapparapu, PM Bowers, G Schiller, JP Chute
    J. Clin. Invest., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. A glucocorticoid- and diet-responsive pathway toggles adipocyte precursor cell activity in vivo.
    Authors: Wong J, Krueger K, Costa M, Aggarwal A, Du H, McLaughlin T, Feldman B
    Sci Signal, 2016;9(451):ra103.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  3. Noncanonical role of transferrin receptor 1 is essential for intestinal homeostasis.
    Authors: Chen A, Donovan A, Ned-Sykes R, Andrews N
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015;112(37):11714-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  4. Pleiotrophin gene therapy for peripheral ischemia: evaluation of full-length and truncated gene variants.
    Authors: Fang Q, Mok P, Thomas A, Haddad D, Saini S, Clifford B, Kapasi N, Danforth O, Usui M, Ye W, Luu E, Sharma R, Bartel M, Pathmanabhan J, Ang A, Sievers R, Lee R, Springer M
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61413.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: ELISA Development (Capture)
  5. Pleiotrophin produced by multiple myeloma induces transdifferentiation of monocytes into vascular endothelial cells: a novel mechanism of tumor-induced vasculogenesis.
    Authors: Chen H, Campbell RA, Chang Y, Li M, Wang CS, Li J, Sanchez E, Share M, Steinberg J, Berenson A, Shalitin D, Zeng Z, Gui D, Perez-Pinera P, Berenson RJ, Said J, Bonavida B, Deuel TF, Berenson JR
    Blood, 2009;113(9):1992-2002.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: Neutralization
  6. The pro-angiogenic cytokine pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of endogenous AKT/PKB activity.
    Authors: Li J, Wei H, Chesley A, Moon C, Krawczyk M, Volkova M, Ziman B, Margulies KB, Talan M, Crow MT, Boheler KR
    J. Biol. Chem., 2007;282(48):34984-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  7. Pleiotrophin is highly expressed by myeloma cells and promotes myeloma tumor growth.
    Authors: Chen H, Gordon MS, Campbell RA, Li M, Wang CS, Lee HJ, Sanchez E, Manyak SJ, Gui D, Shalitin D, Said J, Chang Y, Deuel TF, Baritaki S, Bonavida B, Berenson JR
    Blood, 2007;110(1):287-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: Neutralization
  8. Role of heparin binding growth factors in nigrostriatal dopamine system development and Parkinson's disease.
    Authors: Marchionini DM, Lehrmann E, Chu Y, He B, Sortwell CE, Becker KG, Freed WJ, Kordower JH, Collier TJ
    Brain Res., 2007;1147(0):77-88.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
    Applications: Western Blot
  9. Neuritogenic activity of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains of embryonic pig brain and their mimicry from shark liver. Involvement of the pleiotrophin and hepatocyte growth factor signaling pathways.
    Authors: Li F, Shetty AK, Sugahara K
    J. Biol. Chem., 2007;282(5):2956-66.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  10. Gene expression changes in the course of neural progenitor cell differentiation.
    Authors: Gurok U, Steinhoff C, Lipkowitz B, Ropers HH, Scharff C, Nuber UA
    J. Neurosci., 2004;24(26):5982-6002.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  11. The anti-HIV cytokine midkine binds the cell surface-expressed nucleolin as a low affinity receptor.
    Authors: Said EA, Krust B, Nisole S, Svab J, Briand JP, Hovanessian AG
    J. Biol. Chem., 2002;277(40):37492-502.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization


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