Human Serum TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Standard Curve
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Human Serum TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (50 uL), EDTA Plasma (50 uL), Heparin Plasma (50 uL)
3.63 pg/mL
Assay Range
10.9 - 700 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma)
Natural and recombinant human TIM-1.
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

The Quantikine® Human Serum TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human TIM-1 in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. It contains NS0-expressed recombinant human TIM-1 and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. Natural human TIM-1 showed dose-response curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine® kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative levels of natural human TIM-1.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty separate assays to assess inter-assay precision. Assays were performed by at least three technicians using two lots of components

Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 20 20 20
Mean (pg/mL) 48.9 148 295 51.1 149 292
Standard Deviation 1.65 3.92 8.7 3.37 8.97 19.6
CV% 3.4 2.6 2.9 6.6 6 6.7


The recovery of human TIM-1 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=4) 94 89-102
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 93 80-108
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 91 81-104
Serum (n=4) 94 82-109


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of human TIM-1 were serially diluted with calibrator diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Standard Curve

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1), also known as Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr1), is a member of the TIM family which is involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses (1, 2). TIM-1 is a type I transmembrane protein that contains an N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain, a mucin domain with O- and N-linked glycosylations, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic signaling domain (3, 4). Multiple TIM-1 variants can be produced due to polymorphisms or alternative splicing resulting in deletions in the mucin domain (3). Some of these polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to atopy, autoimmunity, and severe hepatitis A virus infection in humans (5). Within the extracellular domain, human TIM-1 shares 41% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat TIM-1. 

In vivo, TIM-1 is expressed on splenic B cells and is a marker for the identification of IL-10+ regulatory B cells (6, 7). TIM-1 is also expressed on CD4+ T cells, mast cells, invariant NKT (iNKT) cells, dendritic cells, kidney epithelium and a broad range of mucosal epithelium (4, 8-15). The expression of TIM-1 is upregulated on activated Th2 cells, after dendritic cell maturation, and on kidney tubular epithelial cells after injury (4, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17). Metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage of TIM-1 at the membrane-proximal region results in the release of a soluble form of TIM-1 which is detectable in the urine and in circulation (18, 19). Urinary TIM-1 is highly elevated in nephropathy and may be a useful biomarker for renal damage (16, 20 - 25). 
TIM-1 has been reported to be a receptor for a number of ligands, including phosphatidylserine, leukocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 5 (LMIR5/CD300b), TIM-1 (homophilic), TIM-4, IgA, and the glycoproteins of a number of enveloped viruses (5, 15, 26-33). Its interaction with phosphatidylserine enables TIM-1 to mediate the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (26-28). In TIM-1-bearing iNKT cells, interaction with apoptotic cells can also result in iNKT cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production (11). Interactions between cell-surface or soluble TIM-1 with LMIR5 is proposed to induce LMIR5-mediated activation of myeloid cells including macrophages/monocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (29). These interactions contribute to tissue homeostasis and damage during kidney injury (29). Ligandinduced TIM-1 signaling costimulates T cell activation and enhances Th2 cytokine production (9, 31, 34). In humans, TIM-1 serves as a cellular entry receptor for various viruses, including hepatitis A virus, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (15, 33).

Long Name:
T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin-1
Entrez Gene IDs:
26762 (Human); 171283 (Mouse); 286934 (Rat); 102141332 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names:
CD365; HAVCR1; HAVCR-1; HAVCRT cell immunoglobin domain and mucin domain protein 1; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1; Kidney injury molecule 1; KIM1; KIM-1; T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1; TIM1; TIM-1; TIM-1TIM; TIM1TIMD-1; TIMD1T-cell membrane protein 1
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Citations for Human Serum TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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  1. Evaluation of renal microperfusion in hyperuricemic nephropathy by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound imaging
    Authors: L He, Z Li, Q Zhang, Y Chen, Y Gao, T Chen, N Wang, L Jiang, Y Fan
    Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2022;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  2. Effect of 0.9% NaCl compared to plasma-lyte on biomarkers of kidney injury, sodium excretion and tubular transport proteins in patients undergoing primary uncemented hip replacement - a randomized trial
    Authors: AM Østergaard, AN Jørgensen, S Bøvling, NP Ekeløf, FH Mose, JN Bech
    Bmc Nephrology, 2021;22(1):111.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  3. Mannitol and renal graft injury in patients undergoing deceased donor renal transplantation - a randomized controlled clinical trial
    Authors: C Reiterer, K Hu, S Sljivic, M Falkner vo, E Fleischman, A Kainz, B Kabon
    BMC Nephrol, 2020;21(1):307.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  4. Circulating kidney injury molecule-1 as a biomarker of renal parameters in diabetic kidney disease
    Authors: T Gohda, N Kamei, T Koshida, M Kubota, K Tanaka, Y Yamashita, E Adachi, S Ichikawa, M Murakoshi, S Ueda, Y Suzuki
    J Diabetes Investig, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum


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Human Serum TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 11/18/2022
Sample Tested: Plasma

No matrix effect observed when plasma was tested at 4-fold dilution.