Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Standard Curve
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Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Urine (50 uL)
0.046 ng/mL
Assay Range
0.2 - 10 ng/mL (Urine)
Natural and recombinant human TIM-1
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

The Quantikine Human TIM-1 Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure TIM-1 in urine. It contains NS0-expressed recombinant human TIM-1 and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. Natural human TIM-1 showed dose-response curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the recombinant Quantikine kit standards, indicating that this kit can be used to determine relative levels of natural human TIM-1.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision


Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 40 40 40
Mean (ng/mL) 0.98 3.04 5.88 1.09 3.19 6.23
Standard Deviation 0.042 0.119 0.259 0.069 0.193 0.484
CV% 4.3 3.9 4.4 6.3 6 7.8


The recovery of TIM-1 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Urine (n=20) 104 94-112


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing high concentrations of TIM-1 were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay. For more information on linearity and hand
Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Human TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1), also known as Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr1), is a member of the TIM family which is involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses (1, 2). TIM-1 is a type I transmembrane protein that contains an N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain, a mucin domain with O- and N-linked glycosylations, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic signaling domain (3, 4). Multiple TIM-1 variants can be produced due to polymorphisms or alternative splicing resulting in deletions in the mucin domain (3). Some of these polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to atopy, autoimmunity, and severe hepatitis A virus infection in humans (5). Within the extracellular domain, human TIM-1 shares 41% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat TIM-1. 

In vivo, TIM-1 is expressed on splenic B cells and is a marker for the identification of IL-10+ regulatory B cells (6, 7). TIM-1 is also expressed on CD4+ T cells, mast cells, invariant NKT (iNKT) cells, dendritic cells, kidney epithelium and a broad range of mucosal epithelium (4, 8-15). The expression of TIM-1 is upregulated on activated Th2 cells, after dendritic cell maturation, and on kidney tubular epithelial cells after injury (4, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17). Metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage of TIM-1 at the membrane-proximal region results in the release of a soluble form of TIM-1 which is detectable in the urine and in circulation (18, 19). Urinary TIM-1 is highly elevated in nephropathy and may be a useful biomarker for renal damage (16, 20 - 25). 
TIM-1 has been reported to be a receptor for a number of ligands, including phosphatidylserine, leukocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 5 (LMIR5/CD300b), TIM-1 (homophilic), TIM-4, IgA, and the glycoproteins of a number of enveloped viruses (5, 15, 26-33). Its interaction with phosphatidylserine enables TIM-1 to mediate the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (26-28). In TIM-1-bearing iNKT cells, interaction with apoptotic cells can also result in iNKT cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production (11). Interactions between cell-surface or soluble TIM-1 with LMIR5 is proposed to induce LMIR5-mediated activation of myeloid cells including macrophages/monocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (29). These interactions contribute to tissue homeostasis and damage during kidney injury (29). Ligandinduced TIM-1 signaling costimulates T cell activation and enhances Th2 cytokine production (9, 31, 34). In humans, TIM-1 serves as a cellular entry receptor for various viruses, including hepatitis A virus, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (15, 33).

Long Name:
T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin-1
Entrez Gene IDs:
26762 (Human); 171283 (Mouse); 286934 (Rat); 102141332 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names:
CD365; HAVCR1; HAVCR-1; HAVCRT cell immunoglobin domain and mucin domain protein 1; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1; Kidney injury molecule 1; KIM1; KIM-1; T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1; TIM1; TIM-1; TIM-1TIM; TIM1TIMD-1; TIMD1T-cell membrane protein 1
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Assay Procedure

Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
  1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
  2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

  3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
  4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

  5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
  6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
  7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

  8. 200 µL Conjugate
  9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
  10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

  11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
  12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

  13. 50 µL Stop Solution
  14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

Citations for Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

31 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Aristolochic acid I induces proximal tubule injury through ROS/HMGB1/mt DNA mediated activation of TLRs
    Authors: R Upadhyay, V Batuman
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2022;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  2. The moderate-intensity continuous exercise maintains renal blood flow and does not impair the renal function
    Authors: S Kawakami, T Yasuno, S Kawakami, A Ito, K Fujimi, T Matsuda, S Nakashima, K Masutani, Y Uehara, Y Higaki, R Michishita
    Physiological Reports, 2022;10(15):e15420.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  3. Exploration of a panel of urine biomarkers of kidney disease in two paediatric cohorts with Type 1 diabetes mellitus of differing duration
    Authors: L Zeni, AGW Norden, E Prandi, C Canepa, K Burling, K Simpson, B Felappi, A Plebani, G Cancarini, PM Ferraro, D Fraser, RJ Unwin
    Diabetology & metabolic syndrome, 2022;14(1):71.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  4. Cell stress response impairs de novo NAD+ biosynthesis in the kidney
    Authors: Y Bignon, A Rinaldi, Z Nadour, V Poindessou, I Nemazanyy, O Lenoir, B Fohlen, P Weill-Rayn, A Hertig, A Karras, P Galichon, M Naesens, D Anglicheau, PE Cippà, N Pallet
    JCI Insight, 2022;7(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  5. Organophosphate pesticides and progression of chronic kidney disease among children: A prospective cohort study
    Authors: MH Jacobson, Y Wu, M Liu, K Kannan, AJ Li, M Robinson, BA Warady, S Furth, H Trachtman, L Trasande
    Environment international, 2021;155(0):106597.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  6. Effect of a 3% gelatin solution on urinary KIM-1 levels in patients after thyroidectomy: a preliminary randomized controlled trial
    Authors: P Le?nik, E Wo?nica-Ni, J Janc, M Mierzcha?a, L ?ysenko
    Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):23617.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  7. Urine Biomarkers for the Assessment of Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Receiving Therapeutic Hypothermia
    Authors: J Rumpel, BJ Spray, VY Chock, MJ Kirkley, CL Slagle, A Frymoyer, SH Cho, KM Gist, R Blaszak, B Poindexter, SE Courtney
    The Journal of pediatrics, 2021;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  8. Effect of 0.9% NaCl compared to plasma-lyte on biomarkers of kidney injury, sodium excretion and tubular transport proteins in patients undergoing primary uncemented hip replacement - a randomized trial
    Authors: AM Østergaard, AN Jørgensen, S Bøvling, NP Ekeløf, FH Mose, JN Bech
    Bmc Nephrology, 2021;22(1):111.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  9. Urine NGAL and KIM-1-Tubular Injury Biomarkers in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Solid Tumors: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Authors: E Latoch, K Kono?czuk, K Muszy?ska-, K Taranta-Ja, A Wasilewska, E Szymczak, J Trochim, M Krawczuk-R
    Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2021;10(3):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  10. Effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in critically ill adults
    Authors: BE Funke, KE Jackson, WH Self, SP Collins, CT Saunders, L Wang, JD Blume, N Wickersham, RM Brown, JD Casey, GR Bernard, TW Rice, ED Siew, MW Semler, SMART Inve, Pragmatic
    Bmc Nephrology, 2021;22(1):54.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  11. Serially assessed bisphenol A and phthalate exposure and association with kidney function in children with chronic kidney disease in the US and Canada: A longitudinal cohort study
    Authors: MH Jacobson, Y Wu, M Liu, TM Attina, M Naidu, R Karthikraj, K Kannan, BA Warady, S Furth, S Vento, H Trachtman, L Trasande
    PLoS Med, 2020;17(10):e1003384.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  12. Renal tubular damage and worsening renal function in chronic heart failure: Clinical determinants and relation to prognosis (Bio-SHiFT study)
    Authors: M Brankovic, KM Akkerhuis, EJ Hoorn, N van Boven, JC van den Be, A Constantin, J Brugts, J van Ramsho, T Germans, H Hillege, E Boersma, V Umans, I Kardys
    Clin Cardiol, 2020;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  13. The Marker of Tubular Injury, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), in Acute Kidney Injury Complicating Acute Pancreatitis: A Preliminary Study
    Authors: J Wajda, P Dumnicka, W Kolber, M Sporek, B Maziarz, P Ceranowicz, M Ku?niewski, B Ku?nierz-C
    J Clin Med, 2020;9(5):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  14. Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs
    Authors: W Wo?yniec, K Kasprowicz, J Giebu?towi, N Korytowska, K Zorena, M Bartoszewi, P Rita-Tkach, M Renke, W Ratkowski
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019;16(21):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  15. Circulating kidney injury molecule-1 as a biomarker of renal parameters in diabetic kidney disease
    Authors: T Gohda, N Kamei, T Koshida, M Kubota, K Tanaka, Y Yamashita, E Adachi, S Ichikawa, M Murakoshi, S Ueda, Y Suzuki
    J Diabetes Investig, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  16. Acute kidney injury during an ultra-distance race
    Authors: R Jouffroy, X Lebreton, N Mansencal, D Anglicheau
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(9):e0222544.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  17. The role of renal biomarkers to predict the need of surgery in congenital urinary tract obstruction in infants
    Authors: D Kostic, GPNS Beozzo, SB do Couto, AHT Kato, L Lima, P Palmeira, VLJ Krebs, V Bunduki, RPV Francisco, M Zugaib, FT Dénes, WB de Carvalh, VHK Koch
    J Pediatr Urol, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  18. Baseline urinary KIM-1 concentration in detecting acute kidney injury should be interpreted with patient pre-existing nephropathy
    Authors: Y Huang, Y Tian, S Likhodii, E Randell
    Pract Lab Med, 2019;15(0):e00118.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  19. Urinary biomarkers predict advanced acute kidney injury after cardiovascular surgery
    Authors: JJ Wang, NH Chi, TM Huang, R Connolly, LW Chen, SJ Chueh, WC Kan, CC Lai, VC Wu, JT Fang, TS Chu, KD Wu
    Crit Care, 2018;22(1):108.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  20. Acute kidney injury in acute-on-chronic liver failure is different from in decompensated cirrhosis
    Authors: QQ Jiang, MF Han, K Ma, G Chen, XY Wan, SB Kilonzo, WY Wu, YL Wang, J You, Q Ning
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2018;24(21):2300-2310.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  21. Follow Up of Value of the Intrarenal Resistivity Indices and Different Renal Biomarkers for Early Identification of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients
    Authors: SAE Dayem, AEME Bohy, M Hamed, S Ahmed
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2017;5(2):188-192.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  22. Urinary kidney injury molecule?1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method
    Authors: Y Jin, X Shao, B Sun, C Miao, Z Li, Y Shi
    Mol Med Rep, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Urine
  23. Angiopoietin/Tie2 Dysbalance Is Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery Assisted by Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
    Authors: Jongman R, van Klarenbosch J, Molema G, Zijlstra J, de Vries A, van Meurs M
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0136205.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  24. Autophagy activation reduces renal tubular injury induced by urinary proteins.
    Authors: Liu, Wei Jing, Luo, Mian-Na, Tan, Jin, Chen, Wei, Huang, Lei-zhao, Yang, Chen, Pan, Qingjun, Li, Benyi, Liu, Hua-feng
    Autophagy, 2014;10(2):243-56.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  25. A comparison of the ability of levels of urinary biomarker proteins and exosomal mRNA to predict outcomes after renal transplantation.
    Authors: Peake, Philip W, Pianta, Timothy, Succar, Lena, Fernando, Mangalee, Pugh, Debbie J, McNamara, Kathleen, Endre, Zoltan H
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(2):e98644.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  26. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 is related to pathologic involvement in IgA nephropathy with normotension, normal renal function and mild proteinuria.
    Authors: Xu P, Wei L, Shang W, Tian S, Gu D, Yan T, Lin S
    BMC Nephrol, 2014;15(0):107.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  27. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase as a surrogate marker for renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: 1 year prospective cohort study.
    BMC Nephrol, 2012;13(0):93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  28. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.
    Authors: de Borst MH, Nauta FL, Vogt L, Laverman GD, Gansevoort RT, Navis G
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(5):e37957.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  29. Measuring urinary tubular biomarkers in type 2 diabetes does not add prognostic value beyond established risk factors.
    Kidney Int, 2012;82(7):812-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  30. Urinary excretion of twenty peptides forms an early and accurate diagnostic pattern of acute kidney injury.
    Authors: Metzger J, Kirsch T, Schiffer E, Ulger P, Mentes E, Brand K, Weissinger EM, Haubitz M, Mischak H, Herget-Rosenthal S
    Kidney Int., 2010;78(12):1252-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  31. Senescent Kidney Cells in Hypertensive Patients Release Urinary Extracellular Vesicles.
    Authors: Santelli A, Sun I, Eirin A, Abumoawad A, Woollard J, Lerman A, Textor S, Puranik A, Lerman L
    J Am Heart Assoc, 0;8(11):e012584.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine


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Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 11/18/2022
Sample Tested: Urine

Obtained values in range when urine was diluted 3-fold.

Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine SixPak
By Anonymous on 10/24/2020
Sample Tested: Urine

Human Urinary TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 10/16/2018
Sample Tested: Urine

We were looking at KIM-1 in stored urine. All of our samples that were not below LOD fit in the curve.