Human VASA Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Detection of Human VASA by Western Blot.
3 Images
Product Details
Citations (56)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (3)

Human VASA Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human VASA in direct ELISAs and Western blots.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
E. coli-derived recombinant human VASA
Accession # Q9NQI0
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
1 µg/mL
See below
5-15 µg/mL
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Western Blot Detection of Human VASA antibody by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human VASA by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of human testis tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human VASA Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2030) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF019). A specific band was detected for VASA at approximately 85 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Immunohistochemistry VASA antibody in Human Testis by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P). View Larger

VASA in Human Testis. VASA was detected in paraffin-embedded sections of human testis using Goat Anti-Human VASA Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2030) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Immunohistochemistry Detection of Mouse VASA by Immunohistochemistry View Larger

Detection of Mouse VASA by Immunohistochemistry Immuno-staining on control and PMSG treated ovarian sections.A-C: Immunostaining with anti-PCNA antibody. Note minimal PCNA staining in control OSE. Increased staining is observed after PMSG treatment in both the OSE cells and the oocytes of PF (B-&C). Inset B’ is magnified image of the PF located in the OSE. At places, granulosa cells were also positive for PCNA (arrowhead). D-F: Immunostaining with anti-OCT-4 antibody in control (D) and 7D PMSG treated (E&F) ovarian sections. OCT-4 is localized in the ooplasm in control, while in 7D PMSD treated, positive staining was observed in ooplasm as well as in the nucleus of few oocytes (arrowhead) in PFs. G: Immunostaining with anti-human VASA antibody that cross-reacts with mouse MVH. MVH is distinctly localized in the ooplasm of PF and at places was also observed in a ‘germ cell nest’ (G’, arrow). At places some oocytes of primordial follicles in cohorts appeared connected without intervening granulosa cell (arrowhead) H-J: SCP-3 is localized in PF oocytes present in close vicinity of multilayer OSE. Bar: 20μm. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (, licensed under a CC-BY license. Not internally tested by R&D Systems.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: VASA

The VASA gene, originally identified in Drosophila, encodes a member of the DEAD box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The expression of VASA in invertebrate and vertebrate species is restricted to germ cells and is required for germ cell formation. VASA is therefore a highly specific marker of germ cells (1-3).

  1. Zeeman, A.M. et al. (2002) Lab Invest. 82:159.
  2. Raz, E. (2000) Genome Biol. 1:REVIEWS1017.
  3. Castrillon, D. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:9585.
Long Name
DEAD [Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp] Box Polypeptide 41
Entrez Gene IDs
54514 (Human); 13206 (Mouse); 310090 (Rat)
Alternate Names
DDX4; DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4; DEAD box protein 4; EC 3.6.1; EC; MGC111074; probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX4; Vasa homolog; VASA; VASADEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 4

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Citations for Human VASA Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

56 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Restoration of functional sperm production in irradiated pubertal rhesus monkeys by spermatogonial stem cell transplantation
    Authors: Shetty G, Mitchell JM, Meyer JM et al.
  2. Testis exposure to unopposed/elevated activin A in utero affects somatic and germ cells and alters steroid levels mimicking phthalate exposure
    Authors: Penny A. F. Whiley, Michael C. M. Luu, Liza O'Donnell, David J. Handelsman, Kate L. Loveland
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
  3. Molecular phenotyping of domestic cat (Felis catus) testicular cells across postnatal development – A model for wild felids
    Authors: M. Bashawat, B.C. Braun, K. Müller, B.P. Hermann
    Theriogenology Wild
  4. Transcriptional metabolic reprogramming implements meiotic fate decision in mouse testicular germ cells
    Authors: Zhang, X;Liu, Y;Sosa, F;Gunewardena, S;Crawford, PA;Zielen, AC;Orwig, KE;Wang, N;
    Cell reports
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Protein, Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ICC/IF, Western Blot, IHC
  5. Efficient and scalable generation of primordial germ cells in 2D culture using basement membrane extract overlay
    Authors: Arend W. Overeem, Yolanda W. Chang, Ioannis Moustakas, Celine M. Roelse, Sanne Hillenius, Talia Van Der Helm et al.
    Cell Reports Methods
  6. DNA repair protein FANCD2 has both ubiquitination-dependent and ubiquitination-independent functions during germ cell development
    Authors: Zhao S, Huang C, Yang Y et al.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry
  7. Efficient generation of marmoset primordial germ cell-like cells using induced pluripotent stem cells
    Authors: Yasunari Seita, Keren Cheng, John R McCarrey, Nomesh Yadu, Ian H Cheeseman, Alec Bagwell et al.
  8. YTHDC2 serves a distinct late role in spermatocytes during germ cell differentiation
    Authors: AS Bailey, MT Fuller
    bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology, 2023-01-23;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  9. SMG6 localizes to the chromatoid body and shapes the male germ cell transcriptome to drive spermatogenesis
    Authors: T Lehtiniemi, M Bourgery, L Ma, A Ahmedani, M Mäkelä, J Asteljoki, O Olotu, S Laasanen, FP Zhang, K Tan, JN Chousal, D Burow, S Koskinen, A Laiho, LL Elo, F Chalmel, MF Wilkinson, N Kotaja
    Nucleic Acids Research, 2022-11-11;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  10. HGF Secreted by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Primordial Follicle Activation by Increasing the Activity of the PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway
    Authors: Xin Mi, Wenlin Jiao, Yajuan Yang, Yingying Qin, Zi-Jiang Chen, Shidou Zhao
    Stem Cell Reviews and Reports
  11. The Impact of Activin A on Fetal Gonocytes: Chronic Versus Acute Exposure Outcomes
    Authors: Sarah C. Moody, Penny A. F. Whiley, Patrick S. Western, Kate L. Loveland
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
  12. Loss of NEDD4 causes complete XY gonadal sex reversal in mice
    Authors: SP Windley, C Mayère, AE McGovern, NL Harvey, S Nef, Q Schwarz, S Kumar, D Wilhelm
    Cell Death & Disease, 2022-01-24;13(1):75.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  13. GATA transcription factors, SOX17 and TFAP2C, drive the human germ-cell specification program
    Authors: Yoji Kojima, Chika Yamashiro, Yusuke Murase, Yukihiro Yabuta, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Chizuru Iwatani et al.
    Life Science Alliance
  14. Single-cell analysis of the developing human testis reveals somatic niche cell specification and fetal germline stem cell establishment
    Authors: J Guo, E Sosa, T Chitiashvi, X Nie, EJ Rojas, E Oliver, DonorConne, K Plath, JM Hotaling, JB Stukenborg, AT Clark, BR Cairns
    Cell Stem Cell, 2021-01-15;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  15. The gene encoding the ketogenic enzyme HMGCS2 displays a unique expression during gonad development in mice
    Authors: S Bagheri-Fa, H Chen, S Wilson, K Ayers, J Hughes, F Sloan-Bena, P Calvel, G Robevska, B Puisac, K Kusz-Zamel, S Gimelli, A Spik, J Jaruzelska, A Warenik-Sz, S Faradz, S Nef, J Pié, P Thomas, A Sinclair, D Wilhelm
    PLoS ONE, 2020-01-07;15(1):e0227411.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Tissue
    Applications: IF
  16. High-resolution analysis of germ cells from men with sex chromosomal aneuploidies reveals normal transcriptome but impaired imprinting
    Authors: Sandra Laurentino, Laura Heckmann, Sara Di Persio, Xiaolin Li, Gerd Meyer zu Hörste, Joachim Wistuba et al.
    Clinical Epigenetics
  17. Xeno-Free Propagation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells from Infant Boys
    Authors: Lihua Dong, Murat Gul, Simone Hildorf, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Stine Gry Kristensen, Eva R. Hoffmann et al.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  18. Propagation of Spermatogonial Stem Cell-Like Cells From Infant Boys
    Authors: Lihua Dong, Stine Gry Kristensen, Simone Hildorf, Murat Gul, Erik Clasen-Linde, Jens Fedder et al.
    Frontiers in Physiology
  19. Effect of hormone modulations on donor‐derived spermatogenesis or colonization after syngeneic and xenotransplantation in mice
  20. Amplification of a broad transcriptional program by a common factor triggers the meiotic cell cycle in mice
    Authors: Mina L Kojima, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
  21. The mTORC1 component RPTOR is required for maintenance of the foundational spermatogonial stem cell pool in mice†
    Authors: Nicholas Serra, Ellen K Velte, Bryan A Niedenberger, Oleksander Kirsanov, Christopher B Geyer
    Biology of Reproduction
  22. The Mammalian Spermatogenesis Single-Cell Transcriptome, from Spermatogonial Stem Cells to Spermatids
    Authors: BP Hermann, K Cheng, A Singh, L Roa-De La, KN Mutoji, IC Chen, H Gilderslee, JD Lehle, M Mayo, B Westernstr, NC Law, MJ Oatley, EK Velte, BA Niedenberg, D Fritze, S Silber, CB Geyer, JM Oatley, JR McCarrey
    Cell Rep, 2018-11-06;25(6):1650-1667.e8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-Fr
  23. Reduced PRC2 function alters male germline epigenetic programming and paternal inheritance
    Authors: JM Stringer, SC Forster, Z Qu, L Prokopuk, MK O'Bryan, DK Gardner, SJ White, D Adelson, PS Western
    BMC Biol., 2018-09-20;16(1):104.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  24. Quantitative proteomic profiling of the human ovary from early to mid-gestation reveals protein expression dynamics of oogenesis and folliculogenesis
    Authors: A Bothun, Y Gao, Y Takai, O Ishihara, H Seki, B Karger, J Tilly, DC Woods
    Stem Cells Dev., 2018-05-29;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  25. Parental haplotype-specific single-cell transcriptomics reveal incomplete epigenetic reprogramming in human female germ cells
    Authors: Á Vértesy, W Arindrarto, MS Roost, B Reinius, V Torrens-Ju, M Bialecka, I Moustakas, Y Ariyurek, E Kuijk, H Mei, R Sandberg, A van Oudena, SM Chuva de S
    Nat Commun, 2018-05-14;9(1):1873.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  26. PRDM14 is expressed in germ cell tumors with constitutive overexpression altering human germline differentiation and proliferation
    Authors: JJ Gell, J Zhao, D Chen, TJ Hunt, AT Clark
    Stem Cell Res, 2018-01-04;27(0):46-56.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  27. The conserved RNA helicase YTHDC2 regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the germline
    Authors: Alexis S Bailey, Pedro J Batista, Rebecca S Gold, Y Grace Chen, Dirk G de Rooij, Howard Y Chang et al.
  28. Genetic studies in mice directly link oocytes produced during adulthood to ovarian function and natural fertility
    Authors: N Wang, C Satirapod, Y Ohguchi, ES Park, DC Woods, JL Tilly
    Sci Rep, 2017-08-30;7(1):10011.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  29. Primate Primordial Germ Cells Acquire Transplantation Potential by Carnegie Stage 23
    Authors: AT Clark, S Gkountela, D Chen, W Liu, E Sosa, M Sukhwani, JD Hennebold, KE Orwig
    Stem Cell Reports, 2017-06-01;0(0):.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ICC, IHC
  30. Characterisation of the Epigenetic Changes During Human Gonadal Primordial Germ Cells Reprogramming
    Authors: C Eguizabal
    Stem Cells, 2016-06-30;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  31. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary
    Authors: Bentolhoda Fereydouni, Gabriela Salinas-Riester, Michael Heistermann, Ralf Dressel, Lucia Lewerich, Charis Drummer et al.
    Stem Cells International
  32. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) Is required for mouse spermatogonial differentiation in vivo
    Authors: Jonathan T. Busada, Bryan A. Niedenberger, Ellen K. Velte, Brett D. Keiper, Christopher B. Geyer
    Developmental Biology
  33. Marker expression reveals heterogeneity of spermatogonia in the neonatal mouse testis
    Authors: Bryan A. Niedenberger, Jonathan T. Busada, Christopher B. Geyer
  34. The Sm protein methyltransferase PRMT5 is not required for primordial germ cell specification in mice
    Authors: Ziwei Li, Juehua Yu, Linzi Hosohama, Kevin Nee, Sofia Gkountela, Sonal Chaudhari et al.
    The EMBO Journal
  35. Licensing of primordial germ cells for gametogenesis depends on genital ridge signaling.
    Authors: Hu, Yueh-Chi, Nicholls, Peter K, Soh, Y Q Shir, Daniele, Joseph R, Junker, Jan Phil, van Oudenaarden, Alexande, Page, David C
    PLoS Genet, 2015-03-04;11(3):e1005019.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  36. Development of the follicular basement membrane during human gametogenesis and early folliculogenesis.
    Authors: Heeren A, van Iperen L, Klootwijk D, de Melo Bernardo A, Roost M, Gomes Fernandes M, Louwe L, Hilders C, Helmerhorst F, van der Westerlaken L, Chuva de Sousa Lopes S
    BMC Dev Biol, 2015-01-21;15(0):4.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  37. MORC1 represses transposable elements in the mouse male germline
    Authors: William A. Pastor, Hume Stroud, Kevin Nee, Wanlu Liu, Dubravka Pezic, Sergei Manakov et al.
    Nature Communications
  38. Characterization of human spermatogonial stem cell markers in fetal, pediatric, and adult testicular tissues
    Authors: Eran Altman, Pamela Yango, Radwa Moustafa, James F. Smith, Peter C. Klatsky, Nam D. Tran
  39. Human germ cell formation in xenotransplants of induced pluripotent stem cells carrying X chromosome aneuploidies.
    Authors: Dominguez, Antonia, Chiang, H Rosari, Sukhwani, Meena, Orwig, Kyle E, Reijo Pera, Renee A
    Sci Rep, 2014-09-22;4(0):6432.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  40. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia
    Authors: B Fereydouni, C Drummer, N Aeckerle, S Schlatt, R Behr
  41. Three-step method for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived male germ cells.
    Authors: Lim J, Shim M, Lee J, Lee D
    PLoS ONE, 2014-04-01;9(4):e90454.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  42. Influence of activin A supplementation during human embryonic stem cell derivation on germ cell differentiation potential.
    Authors: Duggal G, Heindryckx B, Warrier S, O'Leary T, Van der Jeught M, Lierman S, Vossaert L, Deroo T, Deforce D, Chuva de Sousa Lopes S, De Sutter P
    Stem Cells Dev, 2013-08-14;22(23):3141-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  43. Tumor suppressor gene Rb is required for self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in mice
    Authors: Yueh-Chiang Hu, Dirk G. de Rooij, David C. Page
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  44. Gonadotropin treatment augments postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult mouse ovaries?
    Authors: Bhartiya, Deepa, Sriraman, Kalpana, Gunjal, Pranesh, Modak, Harshada
    J Ovarian Res, 2012-11-07;5(1):32.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  45. Genetic markers of ovarian follicle number and menopause in women of multiple ethnicities
    Authors: Sonya M. Schuh-Huerta, Nicholas A. Johnson, Mitchell P. Rosen, Barbara Sternfeld, Marcelle I. Cedars, Renee A. Reijo Pera
    Human Genetics
  46. The pluripotency factor LIN28 in monkey and human testes: a marker for spermatogonial stem cells?
    Authors: N. Aeckerle, K. Eildermann, C. Drummer, J. Ehmcke, S. Schweyer, A. Lerchl et al.
    MHR: Basic science of reproductive medicine
  47. Direct Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Embryonic Sertoli-like Cells by Defined Factors
    Authors: Yosef Buganim, Elena Itskovich, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Albert W. Cheng, Kibibi Ganz, Sovan Sarkar et al.
    Cell Stem Cell
  48. Complete meiosis from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Eguizabal C, Montserrat N, Vassena R, Barragan M, Garreta E, Garcia-Quevedo L, Vidal F, Giorgetti A, Veiga A, Belmonte JC
    Stem Cells, 2011-08-01;29(8):1186-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  49. Sertoli cell-conditioned medium induces germ cell differentiation in human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Geens M, Sermon KD
    J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 2011-02-12;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ICC, IHC-P
  50. Human haploid cells differentiated from meiotic competent clonal germ cell lines that originated from embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: West FD, Mumaw JL, Gallegos-Cardenas A, Young A, Stice SL
    Stem Cells Dev., 2010-12-02;20(6):1079-88.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, ICC
  51. A Novel Approach for the Derivation of Putative Primordial Germ Cells and Sertoli Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
    Authors: Bucay N, Yebra M, Cirulli V, Afrikanova I, Kaido T, Hayek A, Montgomery AM
    Stem Cells, 2009-01-01;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, ICC
  52. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis.
    Authors: Conrad S, Renninger M, Hennenlotter J, Wiesner T, Just L, Bonin M, Aicher W, Buhring HJ, Mattheus U, Mack A, Wagner HJ, Minger S, Matzkies M, Reppel M, Hescheler J, Sievert KD, Stenzl A, Skutella T
    Nature, 2008-10-08;456(7220):344-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  53. Isolation of primordial germ cells from differentiating human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Tilgner K, Atkinson SP, Golebiewska A, Stojkovic M, Lako M, Armstrong L
    Stem Cells, 2008-09-18;26(12):3075-85.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  54. Enrichment and differentiation of human germ-like cells mediated by feeder cells and basic fibroblast growth factor signaling.
    Authors: West FD, Machacek DW, Boyd NL, Pandiyan K, Robbins KR, Stice SL
    Stem Cells, 2008-08-21;26(11):2768-76.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, ICC
  55. Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women.
    Authors: White YA, Woods DC, Takai Y, Ishihara O, Seki H, Tilly JL.
    Nat Med;18(3):413-21.
  56. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells.
    Authors: Heeren AM, He N, de Souza AF et al.
    Biol Open.


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Human VASA Antibody
By Anonymous on 11/16/2023
Application: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Sample Tested: Ovary tissue Species: Mouse

Whole mount of Mouse Ovary (E16.5). Dilution: 1:300.

Human VASA Antibody
By Anonymous on 11/11/2019
Application: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Sample Tested: Testis tissue Species: Mouse

DDX4/VASA germ cell marker. IF1:500

Human VASA Affinity Purified Polyclonal Ab
By Anonymous on 04/13/2016
Application: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Sample Tested: Testis tissue Species: Mouse

Postnatal day 6 mouse testes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Tissue was embedded in O.C.T. and 5 micron sections cut. Sections were permeabilized with PBS containing 0.1% Triton X-100, then blocked for 30 min in 3% BSA in PBS containing 0.1% Triton X-100. Goat Anti-Human VASA Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (AF2030) was diluted in blocking buffer to 1.25 µg/ml and applied to sections for 1 hour at RT. Sections were washed 3X with PBS containing 0.1% Triton X-100, then incubated with secondary antibody: Donkey anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 555 conjugate (Thermo Fisher A-21432) diluted to 1:500 for 1 hour at RT. Sections were washed 3X with PBS containing 0.1% Triton X-100 and mounted.