Human VEGF-D Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty

15% Off Limited-time Savings on Your Reagents, Assays, and Kits
Now through September 27th, you can save 15% on Bio-Techne reagents, assays, and kits (including Novus, Tocris, and R&D Systems). Use promotion code SAVE15 at checkout on orders over $1,000. See terms and conditions for offer details.

VEGF‑D in Human Placenta.
2 Images
Product Details
Citations (11)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (1)

Human VEGF-D Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human VEGF-D in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, no cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) VEGF‑D, rmVEGF-B, recombinant human (rh) VEGF-B and rhVEGF is observed.
Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 78923
Protein A or G purified from ascites
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human VEGF-D
Accession # O43915
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.


Recommended Concentration
8-25 µg/mL
See below
Measured by its ability to neutralize VEGF‑D-induced proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells. Achen, M. et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:548. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 3‑8 µg/mL in the presence of 1 µg/mL Recombinant Human VEGF‑D.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Immunohistochemistry VEGF‑D in Human Placenta. View Larger

VEGF‑D in Human Placenta. VEGF‑D was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of human placenta (cross-section through a blood vessel) using 15 µg/mL Mouse Anti-Human VEGF‑D Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB286) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained with the Anti-Mouse HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS002) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.

Neutralization Cell Proliferation Induced by VEGF‑D and Neutralization by Human VEGF‑D Antibody. View Larger

Cell Proliferation Induced by VEGF‑D and Neutralization by Human VEGF‑D Antibody. Recombinant Human VEGF-D (Catalog # 622-VD) stimulates proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human VEGF-D (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human VEGF-D Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB286). The ND50 is typically 3-8 µg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: VEGF-D

Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a secreted glycoprotein of the VEGF/PDGF family. VEGFs regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and tumor growth, and are characterized by eight conserved cysteine residues that form a cystine knot structure (1-3). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which share 23% amino acid (aa) sequence identity, are uniquely expressed as preproproteins that contain long N- and C‑terminal propeptide extensions around the VEGF homology domain (VHD) (1, 2). Proteolytic processing of the 354 aa VEGF-D preproprotein creates a secreted proprotein. Further processing by extracellular serine proteases, such as plasmin or furin-like proprotein convertases, forms mature VEGF-D consisting of non‑covalently linked 42 kDa homodimers of the 117 aa VHD (4-6). Mature human VEGF-D shares 94%, 95%, 99%, 97%, and 93% aa identity with mouse, rat, equine, canine, and bovine VEGF-D, respectively (4, 5). It is expressed in adult lung, heart, muscle, and small intestine, and is most abundantly expressed in fetal lungs and skin (1-4). Mouse and human VEGF-D are ligands for VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGF R3, also called Flt-4) that are active across species and show enhanced affinity when processed (7). Processed human VEGF-D is also a ligand for VEGF R2, also called Flk-1 or KDR (7). VEGF R3 is strongly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and is essential for regulation of the growth and differentiation of lymphatic endothelium (1, 2). While VEGF-C is the critical ligand for VEGF R3 during embryonic lymphatic development, VEGF-D is most active in neonatal lymphatic maturation and bone growth (8-10). Both promote tumor lymphangiogenesis (11). Consonant with their activity on VEGF receptors, binding of VEGF-C and VEGF-D to neuropilins contributes to VEGF R3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, while binding to integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration (12, 13).


  1. Roy, H. et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580:2879.
  2. Otrock, Z.H. et al. (2007) Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 38:258.
  3. Yamada, Y. et al. (1997) Genomics 42:483.
  4. Stacker, S.A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:32127.
  5. McColl, B.K. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:863.
  6. McColl, B.K. et al. (2007) FASEB J. 21:1088.
  7. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:19166.
  8. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25:2441.
  9. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) Am. J. Pathol. 169:708.
  10. Orlandini, M. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:17961.
  11. Stacker, S.A. et al. (2001) Nature Med. 7:186.
  12. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) FASEB J. 20:1462.
  13. Vlahakis, N.E. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:4544.
Long Name
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D/cFos-induced Growth Factor
Entrez Gene IDs
2277 (Human); 14205 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D); FIGF; vascular endothelial growth factor D; VEGFD; VEGF-D; VEGF-DVEGFDc-Fos-induced growth factor

Product Datasheets

You must select a language.


Citations for Human VEGF-D Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

11 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Filter your results:

Filter by:

  1. Overexpression of transcription factor BLIMP1/prdm1 leads to growth inhibition and enhanced secretory capacity in Chinese hamster ovary cells
    Authors: M Torres, AJ Dickson
    Metabolic engineering, 2021;67(0):237-249.
    Species: Chinese Hamster
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: ELISA Detection
  2. Correlation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor subtypes and their receptors with melanoma progression: A next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA) automated analysis
    Authors: SM Seyed Jafa, C Wiedmer, S Cazzaniga, Ž Frangež, M Shafighi, H Beltramine, B Weber, HU Simon, RE Hunger
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0207019.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Tissue Microarray
    Applications: IHC-P
  3. Pulmonary Vasculopathy Associated with FIGF Gene Mutation
    Authors: Souheil Y El-Chemaly
    Am. J. Pathol., 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  4. Primary Tumor-Secreted Lymphangiogenic Factors Induce Pre-Metastatic Lymphvascular Niche Formation at Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    Authors: Wakisaka N, Hasegawa Y, Yoshimoto S, Miura K, Shiotani A, Yokoyama J, Sugasawa M, Moriyama-Kita M, Endo K, Yoshizaki T
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(12):e0144056.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  5. VEGF-DdeltaNdeltaC mediated angiogenesis in skeletal muscles of diabetic WHHL rabbits.
    Authors: Roy H, Bhardwaj S, Babu M, Lahteenvuo JE, Yla-Herttuala S
    Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2010;40(5):422-32.
    Species: Rabbit
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  6. Tbx1 regulates Vegfr3 and is required for lymphatic vessel development.
    Authors: Chen L, Mupo A, Huynh T, Cioffi S, Woods M, Jin C, McKeehan W, Thompson-Snipes L, Baldini A, Illingworth E
    J. Cell Biol., 2010;189(3):417-24.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  7. Novel vascular endothelial growth factor D variants with increased biological activity.
    Authors: Toivanen PI, Nieminen T, Viitanen L, Alitalo A, Roschier M, Jauhiainen S, Markkanen JE, Laitinen OH, Airenne TT, Salminen TA, Johnson MS, Airenne KJ, Yla-Herttuala S
    J. Biol. Chem., 2009;284(23):16037-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Western Blot
  8. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor D in breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up.
    Authors: Nakamura Y, Yasuoka H, Tsujimoto M, Yang Q, Imabun S, Nakahara M, Nakao K, Nakamura M, Mori I, Kakudo K
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2003;9(2):716-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors that regulate human cytotrophoblast survival are dysregulated in severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.
    Authors: Zhou Y, 2019, McMaster M, Woo K, Janatpour M, Perry J, Karpanen T, Alitalo K, Damsky C, Fisher SJ
    , 2002;160(4):1405-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-Fr
  10. Profiling of VEGFs and VEGFRs as prognostic factors in soft tissue sarcoma: VEGFR-3 is an independent predictor of poor prognosis.
    Authors: Kilvaer T, Valkov A, Sorbye S, Smeland E, Bremnes R, Busund L, Donnem T
    PLoS ONE, 0;5(12):e15368.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  11. The role of the VEGF-C/-D/flt-4 autocrine loop in the pathogenesis of salivary neoplasms.
    Authors: Tampouris A, Kandiloros D, Giotakis I, Gakiopoulou H, Lazaris A
    Pathol Res Pract, 0;208(3):151-6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P


No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you may

View all Antibody FAQs

Isotype Controls

Reconstitution Buffers

Secondary Antibodies

Reviews for Human VEGF-D Antibody

Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 Review)

5 Star
4 Star
3 Star
2 Star
1 Star

Have you used Human VEGF-D Antibody?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review

Filter by:

Human VEGF-D Antibody
By Anonymous on 09/07/2021
Application: IHC Sample Tested: gastric cancer Species: Human