Catalog Number: 0223
Chemical Name: 4-Hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid
Biological Activity

Broad spectrum EAA antagonist. Putative GPR35 ligand.

Sodium Salt also available.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 50 mM in DMSO and to 100 mM in 1eq. NaOH
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35.
    Wang J, Simonavicius N, Wu X et al.
    J Biol Chem.
  2. An iontophoretic investigation of the actions of convulsant kynurenines and their interaction with the endogenous excitant quinolinic acid.
    Perkins and Stone
    Brain Res., 1982;247:184
  3. NMDA receptors and ligands in the vertebrate CNS.
    Stone and Burton
    Prog.Neurobiol., 1988;30:333
  4. The 'kynurenate test,' a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers.
    Pittaluga et al.
    J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther., 1997;283:82

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kynurenic acid include:

10 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents.
    Authors: Patel Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;36:607
  2. Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures.
    Authors: Weston Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci 2014;7:1
  3. Perimenstrual-like hormonal regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition and neurosteroid sensitivity.
    Authors: Carver Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:14181
  4. Estrous cycle regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and limbic epileptogenesis.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013;346:146
  5. The Munc13 proteins differentially regulate readily releasable pool dynamics and calcium-dependent recovery at a central synapse.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Neuron 2013;33:8336
  6. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Cell 2011;147:1384
  7. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network.
    Authors: Shinoda Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2011;108:373
  8. Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons.
    Authors: Jones Et al.
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;105:1984
  9. Synaptotagmin has an essential function in synaptic vesicle positioning for synchronous release in addition to its role as a calcium sensor.
    Authors: Young and Neher
    J Neurosci 2009;63:482
  10. Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
    Authors: Perez-Leon Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2006;24:1117
Tocris Small Molecules
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Kynurenic acid sodium salt

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